Aberdeen 2016

Removal of wax/sand from carbon steel pipe work using ice slurries (ice pigging)
By: Steve Wheeler, International Pipeline Products Limited, and D Rhys, Suez Advanced Solutions Limited
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    Ice Pigging is a cleaning technique, mature in the water / wastewater industries, which is being developed for the Oil and Gas industry.

    A high-solids ice slurry is pumped under pressure to deliver a wall shear stress on the pipe, cleaning it through physical abrasion. Made of just water and salt, ice pigs do their cleaning, unblocking, debris entraining and transport before melting back into their original components (commonly salt and water); offering a physical clean thousands of times more effective than flushing, without chemicals or risk of getting stuck.

    The trails, which are the subject of this paper were commissioned by Royal Dutch Shell plc, using funding from their Gamechanger innovation program.

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MFL results like a Laser Scan – taking analysis of complex corrosion and pinholes to the next level
By: Frank Flatau, ROSEN Technology and Research Centre, and Michael Rapp, ROSEN Group
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    3D LASER SCANS are becoming increasingly popular for field verifications, and pipeline operators are demanding a corresponding ultra-high-resolution inline inspection technology capable of producing refined integrity calculations.

    Ultimately, such an ultra-high-resolution inline inspection technology would lead to improved pipeline safety while simultaneously reducing the need for costly field verifications.

    Hence, an ultra-high-resolution MFL technology with sensor spacing similar to that of a 3D laser scan has been developed.

    In order to provide reliable inspection results using a ultra-high resolution MFL measurement system, a series of challenges had to be overcome:

    • The extremely tight track spacing requires continuous data recording without any gaps in circumferential direction. This calls for accurate mechanical design to ensure each sensor stays exactly in its track, especially when passing welds.
    • There can be a significant impact on the recorded data quality due to sensor placement on the yoke in relation to the magnetic field. Specific normalization efforts are required to ensure a uniform appearance of data for subsequent evaluation.
    • The sheer amount of inspection data generated warrants the use of machine-based learning algorithms in data evaluation, reducing the ‘human factor’ impact.

    In addition to presenting solutions for the above listed technical challenges, this paper will also provide insight into how pipeline integrity management will benefit from ultra-high-resolution MFL inline inspection results.

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World first pressurised subsea pipeline repair facilitated by a combination of non-piggable and piggable isolation tools
By: Dale Millward, STATS Group
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    A 28" sub-sea pipeline supplying gas to Hong Kong was damaged by an anchor drag 278km from Hong Kong in 90m of water. The damage involved two subsea Pipeline End Manifolds (PLEM) and also dented the pipeline adjacent to the North PLEM. This paper details the repair of the damage using a combination of non-piggable and piggable isolation tools.
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Pig motion and dynamics in complex gas networks
By: Dr Aidan O’Donoghue, Pipeline Research Limited
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    A model to examine pigging and inspection of gas networks with multiple pipelines, connections and customers is presented in this paper. A case study of a typical gas system with multiple lines, connections and off-takes is presented to demonstrate the use of such a model for planning and executing real life operations. A gas flow rate is provided into the network to the various users of the network or grid. Each customer has a requirement for both a minimum pressure and a minimum flow that cannot be disrupted without agreement or penalty to the operating company. Additionally, inspection or ILI tools must be run within certain velocity constraints to allow reliable data to be achieved. Due to the complexity of the system, there is a risk that the pig could stall in the line as flow is diverted as a result of the pigs own differential pressure. Manipulation of valves and flows must be planned and performed carefully so as not to disrupt the demands of the various customers in the network. Excessive pressure drop across closed valves is undesirable if they are to be opened during the operation. Pigging the system is onerous due to the need to balance the requirements of the pigs and the demands of the customers. The pig run time or expected arrival time with transient events such as valves opening, changes in flows, disruption to customers and other transient events is calculated. The paper presents the model and its use to optimise pigging programs in gas networks.
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Introduction to ultrasonic in-line inspection of CRA pipelines
By: Herbert Willems and Gerhard Kopp, NDT Global GmbH & Co. KG
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    Pipelines manufactured from corrosion-resistant alloys (CRA) are becoming more common in special applications, in particular with offshore pipelines which are in many cases exposed to a harsh and highly corrosive environment. For many years the inspection of CRA pipelines (solid CRA, clad and lined pipe) was not a high priority. Due to the special composition of these types of line pipe it also posed specific challenges to in-line inspection methods as compared to the inspection of common line pipe.

    In this article, the different types of CRA line pipe and the relevant characteristics regarding in-line inspection (metal loss inspection, crack inspection) are described. Typical damage mechanisms (e.g. pitting corrosion) that may develop during operation are illustrated and the specific capabilities that are available for ultrasonic in-line inspection as well as the limitations are explained. Several examples from inspection runs in CRA pipelines are presented demonstrating that reliable in-line inspections with good data quality are feasible to a wide extent.

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Congo River Crossing (CRX) pre-commissioning
By: Michael Bowes, Halliburton
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    The Congo River crossing (CRX) pipeline system was built to bring associated gases from various fields to a liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing plant in Soyo, Angola. The pipeline system runs a distance of approximately 140 km from the processing plant to the South Nemba platform located offshore Cabinda via two satellite pigging platforms [north pigging platform (NPP) and south pigging platform (SPP)], which provide the location for a drilled conduit that crosses the Congo River.

    The pipeline system comprises four segments (A, B, C, and W), running from the South Nemba platform to the Angola LNG (ALNG) terminal in Soyo.

    A service company was contracted to perform pre-commissioning services on each segment independently (flood, clean, gauge, caliper survey, hydrotest) before the close-in spools and subsea structures were installed.

    Once all segments were completed and tied in, a global leak test was conducted before commencing dewatering operations. Each segment was bulk dewatered followed by final dewatering and vacuum drying before being packed with nitrogen in preparation for first gas.

    During the various campaigns, each segment experienced incidents/problems, ranging from stuck centraliser tools, leaking hot stabs, vessel delays, etc., resulting in major delays to the overall project. The pre-commissioning work was successfully completed in early 2016.

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Online pigging tool management system
By: Barry Ritchie, Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co. Ltd
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    Pipeline Engineering opened a Service Centre within the city of Aberdeen, Scotland in 2008 to offer a pigging tool management and tool refurbishment service to the North Sea Pipeline Operators for their routine pigging tools.

    Routine pigging tools are used by the pipeline operators to carry out cleaning operations within the production pipelines without impacting on production flow or revenues.

    The Aberdeen Service Centre receipts the pigging tools from the customer post run, and then conducts a full service which comprises of cleaning, stripping, inspection, spares replacement, refurbishment, and final testing. The pigging tools are then ready to be utilised on another routine cleaning run.

    Once the pigging tool has been fully serviced, a detailed refurbishment report is submitted to the customer, providing visibility on the pigging tools condition and information of the service work carried out by Pipeline Engineering. This pigging tool management and tool refurbishment service has helped customers make large savings on their annual pigging tool costs, whilst also receiving the required engineering expertise to optimise their pigging operations.

    The Aberdeen Service Centre has a pigging tool tracking system in place for each customer which highlights their full pigging tool fleet location, condition, configuration, last test date, run details and GA details. This information was previously submitted to the customer on a weekly basis, along with a summary report of all activities. The customers used this system on a regular basis to monitor their pigging tool logistics, and to advise the platform personnel on what the next pigging requirement were to be.

    In Q3 of 2016, Pipeline Engineering has upgraded their pigging tool management service to their customers by introducing an Online Pigging Tool Management System. This online management system, with a personalised customer log in, helps each customer improve visibility of their pigging tool fleet whilst providing the option to remotely access the data via a mobile phone or tablet app. Having such up to date data at hand reduces the customers and/or platforms time spent sourcing the required information via the previous method of emails or saved folders.

    As the Oil and Gas industry operates 24/7, Pipeline Engineering has created an excellent solution to provide continual all year support to the pigging industry.

    This paper describes the optimisation process for cleaning tool maintenance via some customer case studies, demonstrates the software functionality and describes the benefits of having the data at your fingertips.

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FlexIQ – Redefining flexible riser integrity management
By: Andreas Boenisch and Dr. Konrad Reber, Innospection Ltd
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    FlexIQ™ is a complete offering in the arena of flexible riser integrity management from the strategic alliance of INTECSEA and Innospection. This partnership looks to redefine the approach to flexible riser integrity management by offering the best in inspection and computational simulation techniques as part of an Integrity Management Framework. This, in turn, leads to a significant improvement in understanding operational risk and enables a fully integrated service for inspection, analysis and data management. An overview and benefits of the offering will be presented:
    • Risk-based integrity management and inspection planning
    • State-of-the-art annulus testing of flexible risers
    • Visual and MEC-FIT™ Inspection
    • Dynamic riser simulation using detailed, multi-layered finite element models with FLEXAS™
    • Intervention planning and construction management
    • Life of field riser analysis and model updates
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Advances in MFL signal matching and corrosion growth rate selection
By: Andy Russell, Michael Smith, Daniel Sandana and John Knudsen, ROSEN Group
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    Safe operation of pipelines carrying corrosive products or in a corrosive environment requires (i) an understanding of the corrosion threats, (ii) the ability to estimate corrosion growth rates (CGR) of features; and (iii) the ability to apply these rates to plan future inspections, repairs and replacements. Reducing uncertainties in corrosion behaviour will therefore result in safer, more cost efficient operation.

    This paper provides:

    • An overview of methods used in the industry for estimating CGRs (e.g. coupons, corrosion modelling, box matching and signal matching).
    • A discussion of the challenges involved with Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) signal matching; and how advances in pattern recognition and data pre-processing, now allow full automated matching of signal data from repeat inspections.
    • A comparison of different ways of using CGRs (e.g. feature specific rates, maxima, upper bounds, segmented rates) and a methodology for selecting the best method, to ensure safety while minimising repair and re-inspection requirements.
    • Case studies demonstrating the efficacy of using signal matching and a tailored CGR application method.
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Aberdeen 2015

Operational pigging – a frontline tool to control internal corrosion of pipelines
By: Paul Birkinshaw, MACAW Engineering Ltd
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    It is now widely acknowledged within the oil and gas industry that operational (production) pigging is a key frontline O&M activity for controlling internal corrosion in upstream production pipelines. Within MACAW we are at the forefront of this battle, helping operators with the development of corrosion management strategies and in the implementation of effective corrosion control schemes.

    In this technical paper we provide a Corrosion Engineer’s perspective on developing corrosion management systems for oil and gas pipeline assets, highlighting organisational and technical challenges and the importance of operational pigging (i.e. utilisation of production pigs and ILI tools) and how this fits within an overall corrosion management strategy. More specifically, for the most common internal corrosion threats, we discuss possible mitigation strategies and their implementation (e.g. the identification of correct pigging tools and treatment frequencies for the application of biocides to control microbiologically influenced corrosion).

    Based on actual results obtained through assessments and investigations conducted on a wide range of pipelines, the impact and effectiveness of typical current operating practices are critically reviewed. Suggestions and recommendations are then put forward for discussion with regard to improvements and/or alternative pigging strategies which may be beneficial in combating a range of different internal pipeline corrosion threats.

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Evo Series 1.0 – Latest generation of UT crack and corrosion tools for offshore pipeline inspection
By: Thomas Mrugala, NDT Global GmbH & Co. KG
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    Intelligent inline inspections (ILI) are widely used to guarantee a safe operation of pipelines. The inline inspection provides reliable data in an economic way. Ultrasonic (UT) is currently the most accurate and reliable In-Line Inspection technology available in the market. These UT ILI Tools record data while travelling through the entire pipeline from Launcher to Receiver. In most cases, the Pipeline Operator does not need to make major adjustments to their pipeline. Nevertheless, pipeline operators may have to adjust medium flow rates to accommodate optimum inline inspection conditions, e.g. down to 1m/s.

    NDT Global recently introduced the latest generation of UT tools - EVO SERIES 1.0. This generation offers highest inspection velocities of up to 4m/s. This high speed tools overcome reduction of flow rates for intelligent inspection runs. In addition, highest axial resolution available at the market (0.75mm) and circumferential resolution of 4mm provide excellent input for accurate pressure calculations, e.g. based on Riverbottom and crack depth profiles or even 3D Finite element modeling.

    The authors will present basic background information about ultrasound inspection technologies. Theoretical aspects of EVO Series 1.0 tools are discussed for crack and wall thickness inspections followed by a case study performed in a real pipeline. Furthermore, EVO generation offers capabilities of combining different technologies in one tool. One single inspection tool with corrosion and crack transducers enables pipeline operators to operate their system safe with a minimized impact while inspection.

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On the issues of inspecting challenging pipelines
By: Dr Michael Beller, ROSEN Group
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    Nearly half of the world`s oil or gas pipelines have until recently been considered “un-piggable”.

    This term is used when a pipeline cannot be inspected with a free-swimming in-line inspection tool without a need to modify the tool or the line to be inspected. Typical examples are for instance missing launching and receiving facilities, diameter variations, tight bends, low pressure and flow conditions or high pressure and high temperature environments, onshore or offshore.

    In this paper the typical issues regarding the inspection of challenging pipelines will be discussed. A new concept will be introduced, the so-called “toolbox approach”. The driving idea behind the concept is based on having a large variety of services with all the required technologies, including magnetic flux leakage (MFL), eddy current or ultrasound, enabling tailor made solutions to be packaged utilizing exactly the right technical resources for a specific inspection and integrity challenge.

    But it is not limited to a technology perspective. It also uses market information to identify mid- and long term market needs as well as special operational procedures.

    In addition it must be stated that this type of work relies heavily on the expertise and experience of the crew involved, because of the often extremely complex boundary conditions and operational parameters encountered during the job performance.

    Several case studies will be presented to illustrate this approach and address the major issues of successfully inspecting pipelines previously considered “unpiggable”, with a special focus on accessibility, negotiability and propulsion.

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Bringing a new dimension to pipeline pigging
By: David Aitken, Aubin Group
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    To effectively and regularly pig pipelines, a versatile technology is required that could be seamlessly implemented with the ability to navigate variable geometry all whilst being both operationally and cost effective.

    Pipelines are the carriers of high value materials, critical to the success of the operation. Pipelines and pipe networks new and old, multi-bore and straight require care and maintenance to ensure that they are kept in good condition for fulfilling the aforementioned purposes. Collections of unwelcome bodies and /or restrictions to flow can prove to be very dangerous to the surrounding environment.

    Aubin has developed EVO-Pig which alongside Pipeline Gels help remove unwanted bodies and debris from pipelines, ensuring flow conditions are optimised, maintaining production and pipeline integrity. EVO-Pig is a low cost option when compared to traditional mechanical pigging operations. Combined with the simplicity of the design premise and ease of operation, the technology offers a low risk option to pipeline pigging. Shape memory technology, enables the hydraulically or pneumatically driven flexible pig to easily move through changes in pipeline diameter and bends in the pipeline with the added benefit of not needing to be received.

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Tracerco DiscoveryT™ CT Scanner helps to optimise your operational pigging campaign AND verify ILI results
By: Lee Robins, Tracerco
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    After many years in development, Discovery™ subsea pipeline CT (computed tomography) technology is now fully operational and field proven, having successfully completed hundreds of subsea pipeline inspection scans.

    Discovery™ is externally deployed and can scan through any type of pipeline, including flexibles and pipe-in-pipe systems, and through any type of coating. The scan results provide high resolution tomographic images of the pipeline walls to 1mm resolution, as well as characterizing pipeline contents to determine the amount and type of deposits present.

    The inspection is carried out online with no disruption to normal pipeline operations.

    This paper will describe how Discovery™ is used to help in mapping a pipelines contents to assist with operational pigging, and also how it is used to verify and accurately size defects picked up during ILI campaigns.

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Simplifying pipeline inspection – The integration of advanced eddy current sensors onto conventional foam pigs for the low risk and high value inspection of pipelines
By: Steve Banks, I2i Pipelines Ltd
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    Pigging tools for pipelines are typically dominated by cleaning pigs at one end of the spectrum and intelligent pigs at the other. The cleaning pigs are simple, low cost tools that are deployed by onsite technicians and pose little operational risk to the pipeline Operator. Their simple design and construction, especially with foam pigs, mean there is little risk of them getting stuck in the line, mobilisation costs are low and they can be deployment & retrieved with standard facilities. Intelligent pigs on the other hand are complex tools that need to carry the NDT sensors and electronics / power modules in a configuration that allows for optimum inspection capability while maintaining good Piggability. The use of Intelligent pigs require significantly more planning in terms of logistics and operations, the use of specialist personnel for deployment and the processing of data.

    The impact to production and the cost of inline inspection is significant and subsequently ILI tools are only deployed in a pipeline ever few years so data can be infrequent.

    I2i Pipelines have pioneered the development and integration of advanced electromagnetic inspection sensors onto conventional cleaning tools for the regular inspection of pipelines. The innovative pigs bring together the best capabilities of both types of tools, the ease of use, the low risk and the low cost of a cleaning tool design coupled with the advanced NDT sensors normally associated with more expensive ILI tools. The result is a fully capable range of inspection tool that can be deployed regularly by onsite engineers to inspect pipelines for corrosion and cracking, trend inspection data and capture any changing conditions within the pipeline.

    This paper will look into the technical challenges, applications and operational advantages of deploying inspection technology with routine cleaning operations.

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Platform decommissioning in the North Sea: Case studies in pipeline network reconfiguration
By: Henning Bø, T. D. Williamson
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    As older fields become uneconomic, technology improves, business models change, and offshore assets, such as platforms, cease to be productive and are decommissioned.

    In many cases, the existing pipeline network around these platforms is repurposed or reconfigured to suit current needs. Productive wells can be tied in to the existing network, and unproductive assets can be bypassed. Although the platforms are most often specific in purpose, the pipelines are generalists by nature. And prolonging the life of this type of asset is almost always profitable.

    This paper explores the consequences of decommissioning – as part of pipeline repurposing – through a series of North Sea projects involving pipeline isolation conducted over the last seven years.

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Magnetic eddy current as a novel technique for the internal inspection of CRA-lined pipe
By: Konrad Reber, Innospection Ltd
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    The ILI industry still lacks a suitable inspection technology for CRA-lined pipelines, i.e. pipes with a mechanically bonded inner pipe of a corrosion resistant alloy inside of a ferritic steel pipe carrying the hoop stress. Neither the existing UT technology is able to inspect through the interface of a CRA and a ferritic steel component, nor is the current MFL technology able to sufficiently magnetise the ferritic steel pipe in order to inspect this type of pipe.

    The current contribution investigates the possibility of Magnetic Eddy Current (MEC) to carry out such an inspection. A prototype internal inspection tool has been devised. Several types of sample defects have been produced into the ferritic steel carrier pipe as well as into the CRA-inner pipe. The defect types anticipate the integrity issues that an internal inspection tool would need to address. Several pull tests under controlled speeds have been carried out. The results are presented. Influences of tool speed, magnetisation level and eddy current parameter are investigated. Special attention is drawn to the distinction of different defect types.

    The MEC technology was found to be a suitable inspection technique for CRA-lines pipes. This is achieved through several adaptations for this particular task. The particular challenges for the internal inspection of CRA-lines pipes are underlined. The technology may also fill other existing inspection gaps, like the inspection of heavy walled small diameter gas pipelines.

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Benefits of the use of high-bypass de-sanding pigs in conjunction with brush pigs for operational pipeline cleaning
By: Paul Otway, Jee Ltd
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    The use of high-bypass de-sanding pigs, either in isolation or in conjunction with traditional brush pigs, has been proven as an effective new method for mobilising and removing both waxy and particulate debris.

    This case study will discuss the execution and findings of an operational cleaning campaign targeted at the removal of both waxy and particulate debris from an ultra-deepwater oil production pipeline in West Africa. The campaign utilised traditional brush pigs as well as high-bypass de-sanding pigs to remove debris for the purpose of reducing the risk of under-deposit corrosion.

    The focus of the paper will be on the high-bypass de-sanding pig; its design, function and operation, and how it complemented the capabilities of more traditional brush tools.

    The paper will describe the cleaning requirements and the tool types engineered for the operation, including the difficulties of design for the pipeline geometry and operating conditions.

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Aberdeen 2014

In-line inspection of pipes using corrosion resistant alloys (CRA)
By: Johannes Keuter, Rosen Technology and Research Center GmbH, Germany
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    The global market conditions influence the extraction of resources onshore as well as offshore, whereby particularly offshore exploration pipelines need to cope with high temperatures and pressures as well as products containing corrosive elements. This leads to potentially higher corrosion rates in a high temperature environment. Pipelines made of ferritic steels are susceptible to corrosion attack, especially if specific types of medium are transported in the line or the pipe is situated in a critical environment.

    The industry is addressing this issue through various means, also including the development of new materials and pipe types. More and more corrosion resistant materials like stainless steel are used, e.g. duplex steels or different types of corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) pipes. Over the past 30 years thousands of kilometers of CRA pipelines are laid and there is still a growing demand.

    However, in the carbon steel but also in the CRA layer different types of defects and/or features can appear, whereby the ILI technologies so far focus on carbon steel pipes.

    This paper will give an overview of state-of-the-art ILI technologies to inspect mechanically and metallurgically bonded CRA pipes. The challenges for inspection of the carbon steel and the CRA layer, for different ILI technologies will be presented.

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Verification of ILI inspection results with the use of auto UT data: A case study of an offshore pipeline
By: Derek Balmer, Ian Murray and Holly Plummer, PII Pipeline Solutions, UK
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    Verification of inspection results is a challenge to the industry. This is notable in situations of offshore pipelines which are a challenge to access and repair. It is essential that operators have accurate and reliable information on their pipeline condition to enable informed decisions with regards to maintaining and ensuring the ongoing integrity of their assets.

    The case study presented in this paper is based on data collected on the condition of a large diameter crude oil pipeline which has undergone several in-line inspections, corrosion investigations and integrity assessments.

    In order to verify the results of these in-line inspections and subsequent assessments, automated ultrasonic infield inspection results were utilised. A combined technology review and assessment was then completed to determine the accuracy of the measured metal loss features and corrosion rates identified by in-line inspection surveys.

    This paper aims to highlight the results of this investigation and the subsequent benefits of utilising in-line inspection tools as part of an ongoing integrity management strategy.

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Pipeline debris profiling and blockage location as a critical step in cleaning pipelines
By: Rachel Riddell, Halliburton, UK
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    There can be many flow assurance challenges that may result in reduced production through a production system such as paraffin wax, asphaltenes, salts & scales, sand, hydrates and corrosion products. The presence of deposits in a pipeline can lead to accelerated corrosion as well as restricting flow resulting in production rates that are less than the capacity of the system. In order to successfully inspect a pipeline using in-line inspection tools thorough cleaning of the line is required to avoid data loss during the inspection. In addition to the presence of deposits causing issues while the system is in production the presence of deposits can be problematic during decommissioning.

    The first step in any cleaning operation is to gain an understanding where the deposits / restrictions are located in the pipeline along with the chemistry of the deposit. Once the amount and location of deposits are known a custom cleaning program can be developed to clean the pipeline.

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Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) – Are you ready? Recent advancements in isolation technology to facilitate the repair of unpiggable defects
By: Dale Millward, STATS Group, UK
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    The oil and gas industry worldwide is reliant on the long term reliability of pipelines, predominantly rigid pipelines as the safest and most efficient means for the transportation of hydrocarbons.

    Pipeline operators need peace of mind that should a pipeline fail their processes and contingency plans are fully qualified and ready to respond to an emergency scenario.

    There are two distinct damage scenarios that need to be considered, the first is operational damage caused by corrosion or erosion. This damage tends to occur slowly over a long timescale so regular inspection of the pipeline can monitor the condition and ensure planned maintenance is carried out.

    The second damage scenario is through external impact, caused by an anchor drag, dropped object or landslide. With this scenario there will be no warning and the damage could breach the pipeline, introducing an unpiggable bore restriction at minimum or stopping pipeline flow completely.

    This presentation will discuss recent advancements in isolation technology which have been developed to enable the installation of safety critical double block and bleed isolations when an unpiggable midline defect exists.

    Significant savings can be achieved by having the required equipment ready for deployment in the event of a pipeline failure. The primary objective of an Emergency Pipeline Repair System is to facilitate a rapid and safe repair ensuring pipeline production can be resumed as soon as possible, minimising environmental and commercial impact.

    The presentation will include a case study featuring STATS supply of emergency response isolation plugs from 32" to 38" developed for Qatargas. These fully engineered isolation systems were designed and manufactured to meet the clients specification and are now maintained in a state of readiness close to the operator’s asset, to ensure rapid response to an emergency repair.

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Internal axial corrosion in offshore pipelines: inspection and assessment
By: Christoph Jäger, Abdullahi Atto, NDT Global, Germany
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    Internal long axial corrosion is the most common corrosion type in offshore crude oil and water injection pipelines. It has frequently a complex shape that ranges from a smooth uniform wall thickness reduction to a rugged surface with varying depths.

    Long axial corrosion anomalies can be reliably detected and sized by means of ultrasonic in-line inspection (UT ILI). The rough surface of the corrosion can lead to outliers in the gathered ILI data. Accordingly, an elaborated filtering and re-processing of the inspection data is crucial for a consistent data assessment.

    The inspection report usually provides maximum anomaly dimensions (total length, peak depth, etc.) and does not sufficiently describe the complex shape of corrosion anomalies. Therefore, methods based on corrosion depth profile (river-bottom profile, RBP) have to be applied for pressure capacity assessment. In addition, corrosion growth rates are ideally obtained by comparing RBPs of consecutive inspections.

    This paper outlines the main results of a recent joint industry project that provides guidance to the assessment of long axial corrosion based on UT ILI results. It involves the determination of RBPs, the calculation of the safe operating pressure, the determination of corrosion growth rates and the extrapolation of the future pressure capacity. Compared to other assessment methods which are also based on RBP, the presented assessment approach accounts for a higher probability of failure associated with a higher number of corroded sections in a pipeline.

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Effective use of in-line inspection technologies to support pipeline integrity management
By: Peter Smith, Chevron North Sea Limited / Andrew Wilde, MACAW Engineering Ltd, UK
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    Chevron North Sea Limited (CNSL) operates more than 25 pipelines across three operated assets in the UK North Sea – Alba, Captain and Erskine.

    Processes adopted by CNSL for effective management of pipeline integrity and reliability include a combination of online data collection, fluids sampling, corrosion risk assessment, remnant life modelling, and physical inspection techniques for the measurement of pipeline condition.

    This paper discusses the input that in-line inspection (ILI) can have into an overall pipeline integrity management strategy. The following key points will be discussed: The importance of combining knowledge relating to active corrosion mechanisms together with an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of available in-line inspection technology. How ILI results can be used to review the effectiveness of corrosion management strategies and support remaining life assessment. How to select an appropriate re-inspection interval.

    Case studies will be used to provide a practical insight into how this is achieved within CNSL.

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Turnkey solutions for non-intrusive pig monitoring
By: Alan Webster, Online Electronics Ltd, UK
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    Pigging operations often present monitoring challenges that are difficult to predict prior to launch. These include confirming launch, monitoring pig progress at strategic locations and confirmation of the pig’s arrival, often under adverse conditions. Accurately locating a stuck pig as well as quantifying the associated debris transported into the receiver can also be problematic.

    Using a combination of different non-intrusive pig monitoring, signalling and data communications equipment, an operator can mitigate against these risks for even the most difficult or lengthy pigging operations.

    Drawing on experiences gained throughout a diverse project history, this paper provides insights into reliable and novel monitoring methods available to an operator engaged in pigging operations. Descriptions of real life projects utilising using a variety of non-intrusive technologies will be discussed.

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Managing technical and logistical challenges on a deepwater gas field: Pipeline pre-commissioning and inspection project
By: Baker Hughes Process and Pipeline Services, USA
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    This paper focuses on the technology and logistical challenges for a long-distance, deepwater pipeline precommissioning and inspection project.

    Weatherford Pipeline and Specialty Services (P&SS) performed this work on behalf of Noble Energy Inc., a major oil and gas exploration and production company. Its subsidiary, Noble Energy Mediterranean Ltd., contracted directly with Weatherford P&SS as part of their development of a subsea gas production and transportation system connecting the deepwater Tamar Gas Field to an offshore receiving and processing platform linked to the existing Mari-B Platform in the Mediterranean sea.

    Gas production from the Tamar Reservoir is designed to occur through five high flow rate subsea wells into the subsea gathering system, which consists of an infield flowline from each well to a subsea manifold. From the subsea manifold, dual subsea pipelines will transport Tamar production approximately 149km to the Tamar Offshore Receiving and Processing Platform where the gas will be processed. The processed gas will then be delivered to the existing Ashdod Onshore Terminal (AOT) for gas sales into the Israel Natural Gas Line (INGL) system.

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Inspection of pipelines through thick coating
By: K.Reber, A. Boenisch, Innospection Limited, UK
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    The inspection of pipelines through high levels of coating remains a challenging task. In particular offshore pipelines often require a thick coating for various purposes. Usually it is a combination of mechanical impact and corrosion protection. Hence the configurations can be quite different. The external inspection of subsea pipelines and risers often complement or substitute an internal inspection by pigging.

    An overview of available technologies is presented. The limitation of the technologies and their physical origins are discussed. A systematic investigation in improving the capabilities was done. Most of the principles are based on some kind of eddy current technique. Several case studies of inspection through a thick coating are presented. In one case risers had to be inspected through as much as 12mm of coating and with a wall thickness of 25mm. The high stand-off measurement usually conflicts with a high resolution of the scanned surface. Metal loss defects as small as 10 mm and as shallow as 10% have been found. In a different project a wire disorganisation of a flexible pipe had to be detected through a coating of 9 mm. In this case it was possible to show, how a regular signal pattern and its distortion by defects can lead to a sensitive detection of defects through a coating.

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Advancements in the detection and sizing of “pinhole” metal loss in onshore & offshore pipelines
By: Martin Bluck, PII Pipelines Solutions, UK
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    In the last 4 years more than 800 inspections have been completed on & off-shore with the latest generation MFL ILI technology, capturing information on tens of thousands of kilometres of pipe, and generating a significant volume of dig verification data.

    In collaboration with Oil & Gas pipeline operators around the world this growing dig verification database has been utilized to improve software models, algorithms, & analysis processes to validate and further enhance system detection, sizing, & reporting capabilities.

    This paper focuses on the recent collaboration between ExxonMobil and PII, to investigate system capabilities with respect to “Pinholes”, to address a known threat to a specific pipeline in the United Kingdom.

    This paper will describe the:

    • Evolution of the "Pinhole" specification that captured the interest of ExxonMobil.
    • Use of Finite Element models to predict entitlement for characterization of "Pinhole" type defects
    • Detail of and results from the ExxonMobil sponsored test program that was conducted in early 2013
    • The in-line inspection, analysis report, and dig verification that followed for the pipeline in question.
    This joint paper prepared by PII in collaboration with ExxonMobil will reflect the perspective and synergy of ILI vendor & and Pipeline Owner/Operator.
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Aberdeen 2013

ADVANCEMENTS IN SPRAY PIG APPLICATIONS
By: George Lim, T.D. Williamson, Inc., Norway
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    Internal corrosion can lead to production reduction as corrosion by-products accumulate in the pipeline and, in the event of a through-wall failure, can cause extensive hazard to people and damage to asset and the environment.

    Corrosion inhibitors have proven to be very effective at reducing the overall corrosion rate when added to the pipeline product in small amounts. The inhibitors are generally introduced into the pipeline by injection, either as slug treatment or continuous injection, or most commonly as batch treatment employing a chemical column between two pigs.

    Operators are looking for alternative treatment options. This may include the application of corrosion inhibitors by an innovative “spray pig” technology.

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THE INTEGRATION OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS INTO MECHANICAL VALVE INTERLOCKING SOLUTIONS IMPROVES EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY
By: Frank Gielissen, Netherlocks Safety Systems, The Netherlands
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    Mechanical interlocking products guarantee strict adherence to procedure and thus avoid human error. They are particularly useful for operations that are generally recognized as highly dangerous, such as pigging. Interlocks are a cost-effective measure that results in extremely high safety levels.

    Traditionally however, interlocks function as independent and stand-alone safety systems. But as advanced digital technology now enables us to combine process control and safety instrumented functions within a common automation infrastructure, wouldn’t it be better to integrate operator procedures, such as those safeguarded by mechanical interlocks, with the Distributed Control System (DCS) and Safety Instrumented System (SIS) as well?

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PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR CHALLENGING PIPELINES
By: Tom Steinvoorte, ROSEN Europe, The Netherlands
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    As the overall infrastructure in the oil and gas industry is aging there is an increasing demand to assess the integrity of all existing assets. As a result pipeline inspection using In-Line Inspection (ILI) tools has become the standard for pipelines that can be considered piggable. Many of the world's pipelines were however never designed to be pigged, the so-called unpiggable pipelines.

    To operators these unpiggable pipelines are equally important to the overall integrity of the pipeline system and suitable inspection solutions are therefore required. Although alternatives like direct assessment and spot checks using in-field, non-destructive testing exist, the most valuable information can only be obtained from the inside of the pipeline using in-line inspection devices.

    Typical challenges involve access (no pig traps installed), operating conditions as well as the pipeline geometry. Due to the individual challenges arising from pipelines deemed to be unpiggable a wide variety of tailored solutions has been developed in recent years.

    One of ROSEN's recent developments is the extremely short Bi-Di Inline-Inspection tools. Their bi-directional design, passage capabilities and wide range of operating conditions provide great flexibility to operators, thus minimizing the operational impact and required pipeline modifications. Applications include ILI of tanker loading/unloading pipelines, gathering pipelines, branch connections, risers and flare lines.

    This paper will discuss the continued development of ILI solutions specifically designed to close the gap between piggable and unpiggable pipelines by discussing their challenges, practical application, case studies, and the future of additional research and development.

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Removal of a large wax deposition from the 8” Heimdal to Brae pipeline using a high friction jetting pig
By: Arild Fahre-Skau, Statoil, Norway and Aidan O'Donoghue, Pipeline Research Ltd, UK
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE PATHFINDER FOAM CALIPER PIG
By: Peter Ward, Pipeline Innovations Ltd, UK
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    In 2005, Total were planning to carry out an inspection of two 32” gas and condensate pipelines running 92 km from the South Pars field in the Persian Gulf to the shore terminal at Assaluyeh in Iran. The pipelines were overdue for inspection but it was known that hard scale deposits were present in the line which would present significant difficulties to the passage of either MFL or Ultrasonic tools. Total were therefore planning to carry out an acid clean of Sea Line 1 to remove the scale prior to the use of the inspection pigs. Our company was asked if we could run a multi-channel caliper tool through the line to measure the thickness and the distribution of deposits and to provide the information to the pipeline engineers to allow them to optimise the acid clean. In due course we successfully carried out the caliper run and from the data, we were able to map of the distribution of the scale and an estimate of the total volume of the deposits. From this information, Total were able to determine the quantity of acid required and optimise the soak time to ensure all of the scale was removed. Following the acid clean, we were asked to return and run the caliper to confirm that all of the deposits had been removed. In fact when we did the run we found that some of the thickest deposits had not been removed so a mechanical cleaning pig was used to remove the remaining deposits allowing the MFL inspection to be carried out.

    In 2006 we were invited back to carry out the pre-cleaning caliper survey of the second pipeline – Sea Line 2. Foam pigs had been run through this pipeline but no hard bodied pigs. We therefore offered a smart gauging pig to run in the line first to get an idea of the size and location of the major restrictions before running our caliper tool.

    However, when the gauging pig was run, it was severely damaged and the rear disc stack was completely stripped off the pig and left in the line (Figure 1). Clearly the restriction in this line was much more severe than in Sea Line 1. Fortunately the pig had not been completely stuck in the line and by measuring the damage we were able to figure out the key design parameters of a caliper pig which should be able to get through the restriction in the bend at the bottom of the riser.

    With help from the engineers at Propipe, a caliper pig was produced and much to our relief, it passed through the line without a hitch. Once again, data from the caliper run was used to produce a mapping of the scale deposits and this time the post cleaning caliper run showed that the deposits had been successfully removed.

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NEW TOOL PROVIDES CLEARER PICTURES OF FLEXIBLE RISERS
By: Jan Willy Kristiansen, Halliburton Pipeline and Process Services, Halliburton AS, Norway
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    Several of the world’s oil and gas facilities are experiencing aging production infrastructure. Operators are now applying greater focus to integrity management and more frequent inspections. Internal visual inspection is one method for the inspection of pipeline systems. Challenges exist with this method related to camera tools and receiving a clear image as well as performing swift inspections to keep disruption of production to a minimum.

    When a major operator on the Norwegian continental shelf required effective inspection of several flexible production risers, it became apparent that the existing technology did not provide the required image quality and operational effectiveness. This lead to the development of an inspection camera tool that combines existing technology used for inspection of drilling risers and blowout preventers (BOPs) with a commonly used deployment vehicle (pig) design.

    The tool enables single inspection runs to acquire digital images in a high-pressure environment. It incorporates high resolution, wide-angle 185/360° images, powerful lighting, and customized software with digital unwrapping and advanced digital filtering.

    The tool body has a bidirectional pig design and is launched and controlled using a high-tensile-strength control cable. An effective stripper unit mounted on a regular pig launcher helps ensure a safe launch and control of the tool. The visual inspection tool is normally launched in clear fluid, but other driving media can also be used.

    Within pipeline systems, this camera tool enables inspection for abnormalities, corrosion, coating, functions, and other features. Operators can use this technology to improve and expedite the decision-making process, leading to time savings, reduced costs, and increased offshore safety.

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DIFFICULT TO PIG AND TO INSPECT OFFSHORE PIPES
By: K. Reber, Innospection Germany GmbH, Stutensee, Germany S. Hartmann, Innospection Ltd., UK, A. Boenisch, Innospection Ltd., UK
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    When it comes to a fast, non-intrusive, complete and meaningful inspection of an offshore pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) has been the method of choice for several decades now. However, not all pipelines, piping or other tubular structures can be inspected with in-line inspection tools (pigs). The method is usually limited to looping flow lines or export pipelines, specifically designed for ILI operation. The remaining structures are often summarized under the buzzword “non-piggable”.

    The typical ILI viewpoint is to consider the piggability under either the aspect of pipeline design or pipeline operation. Typical piggability issues in pipelines under pipeline design aspects are launching/receiving facilities, bends, and internal obstructions. The other aspects are operations-related. ILI may be impossible due to too high/low flow, too high temperature and other. In both cases ILI solutions can still be conceived and realised by either changing the pipeline or by adapting the pig. The latter is the technically more interesting solution for service providing companies. ILI providers are busy in designing and already offer tools for multiple diameters, for bi-directional operation and tools with special insertion techniques. Also there are many solutions available that use a cable operated tool and/or a crawler type tool. Discussions on solutions for unpiggable pipelines usually focus on these types of solutions.

    There still remains an area of inspection tasks that can be summarized under “Not at all piggable”. For either technical or financial reasons, a pig-like solution may still remain unfeasible. In some cases the involved technical risk may also convince the involved parties to refrain from any ILI adaptation. In these cases either key-hole solutions or external inspection may remain the only option. The distinction between a key-hole solution and a pig-based inspection can be made by the aim to reach a 100% coverage in the latter case. For other inspection types a lower inspection coverage is usually accepted.

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DIGITAL OFFSHORE ACOUSTIC PIG TRACKING WITH MULTIPATH ROBUSTNESS
By: Jason A. Farqué, CDI, U.S.A.
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    Acoustic pipeline pig tracking, simply put, is the attachment of a battery powered acoustic pinger to a pipeline pig; the acoustic signal generated by the pinger travels through the pipeline and into the surrounding water and is subsequently tracked with a suitable receiver system.

    Receivers consist of a hydrophone, essentially an aquatic microphone tuned to the frequencies of interest, and some sort of user interface which displays, or more often plays back downshifted audio of the ping.

    The hydrophones attached to receivers can be either omni-directional or directional depending on the task at hand. For tracking from a surface vessel, omni-directional is often the obvious choice. However, when precise locating of the pinger is required, a directional hydrophone can be used.

    The energy emitted by the acoustic pinger are acoustic tones, often only a few milliseconds long and outside the range of human hearing, typically between 10kHz and 40kHz.

    Acoustic pig tracking itself is not a new field. For decades pinger suppliers have supplied pinger equipment to offshore pipeline construction companies and pipeline operators alike. These pingers, when properly mounted on pipeline pigs, have provided these basic offshore pig tracking functions.

    Despite this list of strong positive features, acoustic pig tracking has a somewhat spotty record of reliability in the field. Over the years CDI has had the opportunity to speak with many of the end-users of acoustic equipment. Anecdotal end user experiences have varied widely, with some firms having good experiences and others having complete failures.

    Some of the failures of the systems are no doubt due to a lack of understanding and training of the operator; user error. This is not uncommon when infrequently used systems are put into the hands of end users. However, user error cannot account for all of the failures experienced by otherwise competent operators. There are some subtle underlying technical problems with existing acoustic pig tracking systems.

    Perhaps greatest among these is multipathing.

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Aberdeen 2012

A Pipeline Inspection Case Study: Design Improvements on a New Generation UT Inline Inspection Crack Tool
By: Weatherford Pipeline & Specialty Services, UK
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    For over 20 years, ultrasonic in-line inspection (ILI) tools have played a crucial role in helping operators manage pipeline integrity threats. The predominant ILI applications utilizing ultrasonic (UT) technology have been for wall loss and crack inspection.

    Despite the high success rate experienced with ultrasonic ILI tools, technological improvements are still required to help operators manage the integrity of an aging pipeline infrastructure: improvements in the Probability of Detection (POD), improving detection reliability under different pipeline conditions, increased ranges for pipeline operating parameters, and leveraging synergies from a Combo Wall Measurement-Crack Detection (WM-CD) tool in a single run.

    In 2010, Weatherford Pipeline and Specialty Services (P&SS) commissioned its new generation fleet of ultrasonic wall measurement and crack detection tools. One of the design objectives was to address some of the ILI tool limitations identified above.

    This paper focuses on reviewing the latest design improvements for the new generation tools and presents a case study on a recent survey conducted on the Adria-Wien Pipeline (AWP). The pipeline sections inspected were the 30" x 4 kilometer and 18" x 420 kilometer pipeline. This paper is a joint collaboration between AWP (represented by Michael Huss) and Weatherford Pipeline & Specialty Services.

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How to develop & deliver thick wall multi diameter offshore inspection solutions: a case study
By: PII Pipeline Solutions, UK
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    This paper includes three brief case studies on successful inspections of deep sea pipelines, highlighting the technical challenges faced and the critical aspects of solution development and inspection program delivery.

    In addition, a generic approach will be described for the development of complex off-shore applications that helps manage the technical & commercial risk for both operator & ILI vendor in delivering a holistic in-line-inspection solution.

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Dynamic speed control in high velocity pipelines
By: Pipelines 2 Data, UK
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    High velocity pipelines often require significant cut backs in production to achieve safe operating parameters for routine pig runs or ILI programs. Pipelines2Data, UK (P2D) and Inline Services (USA) introduces their latest development in intelligent speed control, designed to maintain acceptable pigging speeds for routine pigging and intelligent cleaning for flow assurance management with minimal impact on production.

    This paper discusses the development of the dynamic speed control system, initial field trials, operational success and its application for maintenance pigging, intelligent cleaning, debris mapping, and black powder removal as part of an operator’s pipeline integrity management strategy.

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Assessing Mechanical Damage Using Multiple Datasets In Inline Inspection
By: T.D. Williamson, Inc., USA
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    Mechanical damage by third party intervention continues to be a major factor in reportable incidents for hazardous liquid and gas pipelines. While several ongoing programs seek to limit third party damage incidents through public awareness, encroachment monitoring and one-call systems, others have focused efforts on the quantification of mechanical damage severity through modelling, the use of inline inspection (ILI) tools, and subsequent feature assessment at locations selected for excavation. Current generation ILI tools capable of acquiring multiple data sets in a single survey will provide an improved assessment of the severity of damaged zones using methods developed in earlier research programs as well as currently reported information. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) type tools, using multiple field levels, varied field directions and high accuracy deformation sensors, enable accurate detection, sizing and classification, thus providing fundamental data for enhanced severity assessments. This paper will provide a review of multiple data set ILI results from several pipe joints with simulated mechanical damage locations created mimicking right-of-way encroachment events, in addition to field results from ILI surveys using multiple data set tools.
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Case study of development of dual diameter pigging tools for regular wax removal and inspection of dual diameter pipeline
By: ROSEN Europe, The Netherlands & GDF SUEZ E&P Norge AS, Norway
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    Making use of existing infrastructure has been a popular practice for 20 years in the North Sea. Gjøa is one of the p latforms that are tied into the existing infrastructure, despite being so far from other platforms that the view from Gjøa is without any other platform.

    Both gas and oil are exported via existing pipelines, the gas export being operated by Gassco and via the FLAGS pipeline to St. Fergus, and the oil via the Troll Oil 2 pipeline to Mongstad. This paper is about the oil export pipeline. Next year we will cover the gas export pipeline and how to pig it.

    The tie-ins are to a vertical (or lateral) Wye installed at time of laying of the pipeline it ties into. At time of construction, the vertical Wye is typically selected, as it can be installed over the stinger of the lay barge, whereas alternative solutions can require a separate installation vessel.

    The vertical Wye by itself would be piggable, but the challenge was created by introducing a dual diameter system together with a requirement for frequent wax scraping. Wax scraping in a dual diameter system had been done before, and passing vertical Wye was done before, but the combination was our challenge.

    This paper describes how we solved the challenge and how we worked together.

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Modelling Pig Train Dynamics In Natural Gas Pipelines
By: Pipeline Research Limited, UK
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    The velocity of pigs in natural gas pipelines can be erratic due to the compressible nature of the gas. Low pipeline pressure means that there is less dampening effect. This can lead to high acceleration, high pig velocity and subsequent deceleration of the pig or pig train. Knowledge of the pig train velocity profile is important to allow inspection of gas lines using an Ultrasonic pig train or understanding the start-up characteristics of isolation plug trains following a tie-in or platform bypass for example. Single pigs can be subject to high accelerations that can lead to pig damage or loss of MFL (Magnetic Flux Leakage) data due to high velocity. This can be mitigated to some extent using bypass or controlled bypass using an onboard valve. For pig trains, this is not possible due to the multiple pigs, liquid batches and the need to maintain the spacing between the pigs. This paper examines the motion of pig trains and how this can be determined using modelling. Examples are also examined using case studies.
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Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems developed to facilitate pipeline repair of unpiggable defects
By: STATS Group, UK
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    The term "Double Block and Bleed" is mostly used to define a level of isolation provided by valves in a pipeline or process system. The term is used to describe a safe method of isolation from a pressurised or hazardous medium to facilitate breaching of the pressure system for maintenance and modifications. This terminology is also utilised to identify the relative integrity of temporary isolation systems.

    However, although "Double Block and Bleed" is a universally used term to specify a level of isolation, the definition of the term is by no means universal.

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Calibration Methods and Accuracy in Detecting Defects in Flexible Riser Pipe
By: Innospection Limited, UK
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    In electromagnetic non-destructive testing a proper means of calibration of defect signals versus actual defect size is quite important. Contrary to ultrasonic pulse-echo methods this is not an obvious method, but requires explicit development work. In the field of MFL-pigging this procedure is known as "defect sizing" or "grading". For metal-loss type defects these methods are well established, even though the details usually remain proprietary knowledge. The object of inspection is always a rigid steel pipe and hence the expected types of signals are limited.

    When the concern is the inspection of a different type of pipe like flexible pipe, the task is completely different. Not only do the types of defects change, but so do the signals and the analysis procedure.

    In the following external inspection of the layers of flexible pipe will be discussed.

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Aberdeen 2011

Case study of challenging inspection of offshore gas pipeline in the Black Sea
By: PII Pipeline Solutions, a GE Oil & Gas and Al Shaheen joint venture, UK
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    The Blue Stream Pipelines are a transport system for the supply of gas from the network of southern Russia to Turkey through the Black Sea, with capacity to transport 16 Gm3/year. The asset consists of a number of gas pipelines totalling approximately 1,250 km. The inspection challenge was that the two offshore pipelines were laid at a record depth of 2,150 m and run from the Russian shore to the Turkish side of the Black sea, effectively an interconnector pipeline between two continents.
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Overcoming the challenges of cleaning and inspecting waxy pipelines in mature oil fields
By: ROSEN Europe, Switzerland
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    Operators of mature oil fields are facing more and more challenges inspecting their aging crude oil pipelines. The installations are reaching or exceeding the end of their design life and accordingly require more thorough inspections. At the same time production decreases, resulting in reduced flowrates and increased accumulation of wax within the pipelines. Often the need for frequent maintenance pigging is underestimated. The requirement to carry out an extensive cleaning regime ahead of an ILI inspection is inevitable. Several steps are required to ensure a smooth operation.
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High paraffin content and long distance – a particular challenge for cleaning and inspection of a crude oil pipeline
By: 3P Services, Germany and Total E&P Gabon, France
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    High paraffin contents represent a significant challenge when it comes to In-Line Inspection, especially in long distance pipelines. This case study demonstrates how this can be dealt with to receive quality inspection results.
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Wax & scale in pipelines
By: Pipelines 2 Data, UK and Total E&P UK Ltd
Assessment of the effectiveness of cleaning programmes
By: Pipeline Engineering, UK
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    Recent advances in the technology of debris detection in pipelines can be shown to allow improvements in the assessment of the effectiveness of cleaning programmes. Successful intelligent inspection depends on the cleanliness of the pipeline, and previous techniques, relying on measuring quantities of debris produced, have not always given acceptable results.

    Early experience with Pipeline Engineering’s cleanliness assessment tool suggests that the use of this type of tool can make a valuable contribution in allowing a reliable judgement to be made regardingwhen a pipeline has reached a state which will permit a successful intelligent inspection run.

    Data is presented from a number of recent PECAT® surveys, demonstrating how the data recorded gives an objective measure of the progress of a cleaning operation, and allows an improved understanding of the internal state of a pipeline. Measurements of wax films down to a thickness of the order of 1mm have been made.

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Inspection of water injection pipelines and future needs
By: Statoil ASA, Norway
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    Statoil ASA has recently inspected several water injection pipelines that have shown unexpected high corrosion rates. In one of the pipelines it was observed a rather high corrosion rate at the end of the pipeline. The corrosion was concentrated around the 6 o'clock position, resulting in extensive river bottom corrosion. The increase in corrosion rate occurs after a subsea manifold, where the water velocity is reduced. It is also concluded that there is scale in the water injection pipeline.

    The river bottom corrosion, scale and the presence of a smooth bore flexible jumper in the middle of the pipeline system provided interesting challenges regarding pipeline cleaning prior to inline inspection.

    This paper addresses the experience with pigging of water injection pipelines as well as pigging challenges that can be expected in the near future.

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Inspection methodologies and tradeoffs for inspection of unpiggable pipelines
By: Quest Integrity Group LLC, USA
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    Recent high-profile pipeline failures have focused increased regulatory scrutiny on the integrity assessment and management of pipeline assets throughout the world. This increase in scrutiny is even more pronounced for pipelines deemed "unpiggable." While a lack of launcher and receiver facilities and limited line flow are obvious challenges, other pipeline design issues ranging from unbarred tees, to multiple diameter step changes, and even mitered or small diameter bends have historically provided inspection difficulties.

    Modern advances in inspection technologies now allow for inspection and assessment of these previously unpiggable pipelines providing today’s owner-operators a varied range of inspection options. However, not only does each inspection methodology have its own related costs and benefits, but each option can have a significant and varied impact on the entire asset integrity program.

    This paper uses multiple case studies to highlight solutions that have worked for individual operators. By examining the results of various inspection methods and detailing how inspection data is used for assessment and asset management, we can understand how inspection data ties into the larger decision making process.

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Flexible pipes inspection with MEC-FIT™
By: Innospection Limited, UK
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    Flexible pipes are by nature complicated in design with its many varying material types, corresponding to challenges in the inspection and integrity evaluation of the pipes.

    The anticipated concerns of the flexible pipe operators are defects such as cracks, corrosions, erosion and fatigue in the different layers of the wires under various tensional stress levels. While the inspection techniques currently available in the market are able to inspect only the near side layers for wire disruptions, the far side layers remain uninspected.

    Developed by Innospection, MEC-FIT™ is a Flexible Riser Inspection Tool using a patented technology that combines direct magnetic field lines with eddy current field lines, thus allowing a deeper penetration into the various armored layers. This technique enables the selection of the layers to be inspected, or alternatively allows the optimisation of the inspection for a specific layer from which a defect signal is received. The tool is capable of detecting defects such as cracks, corrosions, material fatigue and general wall loss.

    Unlike traditional inspection methods, this system requires no couplant or annular flooding. Deployed from an ROV, the inspection data is transmitted in real time via the ROV’s main umbilical back to the inspection computer at the ROV control unit.

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Aberdeen 2010

Safe pigging operation
By: Netherlocks Safety Systems BV, The Netherlands
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    The use of pig launcher and receiver stations for pipeline cleaning, inspecting and maintenance is a method seen world wide. The main benefit of this type of maintenance is that is can be carried out without interrupting the process in operation. The drawback is that it is also a high risk event.
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Gain insight, eliminate risk & pig with confidence
By: Tracerco, UK
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    Oil and Gas pipeline operators clearly understand the benefits of periodically pigging their pipelines, in terms of cleaning, flow assurance and retrieving information regarding the internal condition of the pipeline. By doing so, the operator gains confidence that there is no risk of imminent failure. In practise, however, many operators are reluctant to risk pipeline pigging operations in circumstances where the pipeline contents are not fully understood and can be resistant to pigging for fear of blocking the line and shutting down production. There are also the concerns around the cost of the campaign and the additional expense to facilitate recovery should the pig become stuck.
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Case study on the implementation of a PIMS system for an offshore asset from engineering to software
By: PII Pipeline Solutions, a GE Oil & Gas and Al Shaheen joint venture
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    The QP offshore pipeline network is getting mature and several pipelines in operation have reached or exceeded their design life. In order to cater for the present and future production levels from the above fields, QP conducted an initial risk assessment study to rank the criticality of the offshore pipeline network. The study identified those pipelines most critical to QP’s operations. The most critical offshore pipelines (51 off) were then subjected to a detailed Pipeline Integrity Review. This paper describes the scope and the main findings of this project.

    PII worked together with the client's team – over a 14 month contract period to establish a comprehensive understanding of the integrity of such an ageing asset and to support QP with the required integrity management tools to maintain the pipelines going forward. Comprehensive pipeline integrity management system (PIMS) software was implemented that was integrated with QP’s existing pipeline GIS and was aligned with current industry best practice to effectively manage and mitigate the principal pipeline hazards and risks

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Ultrasonic pig detection of pipelines
By: Sonotec GmbH, Germany
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    The contribution deals with the application of new pig signalling techniques on the basis of ultrasonic probes and methods. It will be shown, that ultrasonic techniques are extremely versatile in order to work under different operational conditions and can be adapted to very different situations. Especially, the possibilities are explainded and exemplified which arise for pigging campaigns at gas pipelines. Two principal approaches will be discussed and combined. First, ultrasound can be sent actively into materials. It can be influcend by changes of the system. This information can be read out by the received ultrasonic pulses. Second, many technical systems, such as pipelines and moving pigs, produce a lot of valuable noise which can be exploited for pig signalling.
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Experiences with ultrasound in wax rich pipelines
By: Statoil ASA, Norway
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    In the past Statoil performed several pipeline inspections which failed due to wax covering the ultrasonic sensors and/or where the inspection tools odometer wheels had stopped due to build up of wax.

    The phenomena were typically seen in wax rich pipelines. There were at the time no inspection tools on the marked that were fully suitable to be run in wax rich pipelines and at the same time collect inspection data over the whole pipeline length.

    In most cases, the pipeline cleaning is the responsibility of the pipeline operating Company and such the inspection Contractors did not have any responsibility if the inspections failed due to wax settling on the ultrasonic sensors or the odometer wheels stopped due to wax.

    This paper presents the work process taking place, from the first unsuccessful Ultra sound Testing (UT) inspection, resulting in a project to develop a UT tool solution which handles wax rich pipelines.

    A new UT inspection tool was developed together with a supplier. The new technology have been utilised in several of Statoil’s wax rich pipelines with good results. Statoil’s experience from the utilisation of the new technology will be presented.

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Ultrasonic in-line inspection technology and fitness-for-service assessment of unpiggable pipelines
By: Quest Integrity Group LLC, USA
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    The need to manage and maintain pipeline system integrity has become increasingly important to pipeline owners and operators in recent years. Accurate measurement and evaluation of the physical condition of oil and gas pipelines is critical to effective integrity management, as well as to assurance of sustained pipeline safety.

    Conventional inline inspection (ILI) tools – commonly referred to as “pigs” – are frequently used to perform detailed inspections on pipelines. These tools are not designed for use on all pipelines, however. Valve restrictions, lack of launcher/receiver facilities, changing pipeline diameters, flow restrictions, or tight bend radii can deem a pipeline “unpiggable” if the inspection tool cannot physically pass through the line. Scaling up a pig for use in large diameter pipe is not as technically challenging as scaling down a pig for use in confined and restrictive pipe spaces. Until recently, little progress had been made in development of pigs for these circumstances, and consequently a large amount of piping, particularly within the fence line of refineries and other process plants, remained inaccessible.

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Review of advanced in-line inspection solutions for gas pipelines
By: Rosen Group, Switzerland
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    Mechanical damage, corrosion, and cracking are common threats affecting both liquid and gas pipelines. However, there are significant differences in the manifestations and frequency of these threats depending on the nature of the medium transported. Whereas Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is by no means limited to one type of pipeline, a conclusive body of evidence shows that it predominantly poses a threat to gas pipelines [1]. Similarly, Top of the Line Corrosion (TLC), i.e. droplets of condensed gas leading to colonies of pitting corrosion, is hardly found in liquid lines but constitutes a considerable risk for gas lines [2]. To complicate matters further, tool behavior, notably in terms of traveling speed, is more complex and problematic in pipelines used to transport gaseous products where specialized tool configurations are required to accommodate the pipeline’s specific flow and pressure conditions.

    In order to reach the universal goal of any in-line inspection (ILI) of reliably and accurately determining the state of the asset, two basic conditions must therefore be met. Firstly, by making allowance for the flow and pressure conditions within the line, a smooth and controlled tool passage must be achieved to ensure optimal data collection. Secondly, the inspection tool must be fitted with adequate technology to ensure that the specific threats posed to gas pipelines such as SCC and TLC are consistently detected. Provided that these two basic conditions are met, knowledgeable and experienced analysts can successfully overcome the specific issues associated with the in-line inspection of gas pipelines.

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Inspection of unusual pipe types with eddy current technologies
By: Innospection Limited, UK
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    Regular high-strength carbon steel pipe is the most often used pipe type for nowadays on-shore and off-shore pipelines. However, for many tasks special pipe types or modifications are employed. These pipe types are designed to give higher resistance to corrosion, like cladded pipe or pipe with thick coating, to give better mechanical flexibility, like flexible pipe or to allow for the transport under higher temperature like heat-insulated pipe.

    As the inspection method strongly depends on the type of pipe and the type of degradation mechanism, regular inspection methods are usually not applicable. This is the case for internal as well as external pipe inspection. It has been found that eddy current technologies are indeed a very versatile method to design tailor-made inspection instruments. It is a common misconception that eddy current is only sensitive to surface defects.

    The paper will describe the advantages of eddy current inspection methods. Methods are classified to show that in fact the methods vary considerably with respect to their field of application. Three case studies are presented, where bespoke instruments have been designed to inspect pipe types that have previously been considered non-inspectable due to their unusual nature. Also it is described how methods that are currently used externally would be employed in an intelligent pig.

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Aberdeen 2009

Acoustic reflectometry for gas pipelines – monitoring features in gas pipelines
By: Pipeline Engineering, UK
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    This paper will provide an overview of a patented acoustic technique known as Acoustek® that has been developed to detect features, such as blockages and leakages in gas pipelines. The technique involves injecting an acoustic, or pressure pulse into the gas within the pipeline. This acoustic pulse will travel as a plane wave along the pipeline and will be partially reflected wherever there is a change in acoustic impedance. Such an impedance change will occur where there is, for example, a change in the internal cross sectional area of the pipeline. By measuring the reflections produced as the acoustic wave travels along the pipeline, together with knowledge of the speed of sound in the pipeline, the location of features, such as blockages, holes, valves and buckles can be accurately detected and located. The technique is non-invasive and in tests it has been shown to be capable of surveying both small and large diameter pipelines over distances up to approximately 10km. It is hoped that future development will take it considerably further.

    This paper will present the results which demonstrate the accuracy of the technique in detecting and locating blockages in gas pipelines. In particular the results of these tests will show how the technique was able to detect pipeline features with background noise.

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Versatile usage of electromagnetic acoustic technologies for in-line inspection of ageing pipelines
By: Spetsneftegaz NPO JSC, Russia
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    The urgent need to increase reliability of stress corrosion cracking detection in ageing trunk pipelines served as a powerful incentive to active development of electromagnetic acoustic technologies (EMAT) by Spetsneftegaz scientists.
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Evaluation of a high resolution GEOPIG to detect and size slab erosion
By: BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Canada
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    From previous MFL Inspections of a 14" sub-sea pipeline, in-depth analysis by a pipeline operators Integrity Department identified the absence of the seamless pattern on the pipeline at various positions. These indications were typically 100’s of metres in length and covered the same o’clock positions. The presence and size of the features meant that the applied inspection technology could not successfully size these features, which complicates the pipeline integrity assessment. In connection with the integrity assessment, they needed to know the depths of the erosion features and were investigating various technologies to determine the feature depths. This paper outlines the investigation of various inspection technologies and the subsequent evaluation of the High Resolution Caliper survey as a technique for detecting and sizing slab erosion.
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Multi diameter, bi-directional pigging for pipeline pre-commissioning
By: Pipeline Research Ltd., UK
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    This paper examines the issues associated with multi-diameter, bi-directional pigging specifically for pipeline pre-commissioning. The technique can be used to flood and subsequently dewater a pipeline without the need for temporary subsea traps. An example is the Alve Pipeline in Norway. This 16 km flow-line from the Norne Platform to the Alve Manifold includes 10” and 12” pipe sections. The line was flooded from Norne using the pig with oxygen scavenged seawater and then dewatered using Nitrogen and produced gas from the well. The pigs needed to have a high sealing efficiency since very low velocities were used to flood the line and in order to avoid hydrates on dewatering. Multi-diameter wheel pigs were employed with non-buckling disc type seals. This paper describes the design of the pigs and the seals to achieve the required functionality. The test facility and testing performed to verify the pig performance is also illustrated. Finally, an overview of the offshore pigging operation is provided.
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Shallow internal corrosion sensor technology for heavy pipe wall inspection
By: ROSEN Technology & Research Center, Germany
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    In-line corrosion inspection plays a key role in pipeline integrity assessment. Detection and monitoring of fast growing corrosion processes, such as Top of Line Corrosion (TLC) or pitting at the inner surface of heavy wall pipes is therefore inevitable for the save operation of off- and onshore pipelines.

    In order to optimize the monitoring of Shallow Internal Corrosion (SIC), a new detection device has been developed on the basis of Eddy Current (EC) technology. The sophisticated SIC tool provides not only the determination of the corrosion status and growth rate, it also enables one to gain detailed information about the internal diameter and shape, such as ovality and dents. Shallow defects of even minor sizes are detected for assessing the degradation process resulting from internal corrosion.

    Here, an introduction to the SIC inspection technology is presented.

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The missing link - Inspecting the final critical section of a large crude transmission and export system
By: 3P Services GmbH & Co KG, Germany
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    This paper contains a focussed case history of an in-line inspection (ILI) in a pipeline which is a critical part of an oil export system. The tanker loading line, located off the Caribbean Coast of Colombia can be accessed from land only. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) was chosen as inspection technology and bi-directional tools were applied. Based on a close co-operation between Client and Contractor the project was successfully completed well inside schedule and budget. Several other projects which required a bi-directional inspection capability are summarised.
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Innovation low pressure pipeline isolation
By: TDW Offshore Services AS, Norway
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    In 2007, a passing vessel collided with the southeast face of a satellite platform, damaging the 12-inch export riser. Production from the platform was immediately shut-in via the emergency shutdown valves, leaving the pressure in the pipeline at approximately 4 barg. Before production could be resumed, repairs to the riser were required. The solution was to cut and remove the damaged riser section, and replace it with a new one. Being a world leader in isolation technology, TDW Offshore Services (TDW) was initially contacted for use of the patented SmartPlug® Isolation tool to facilitate the repair process. A SmartPlug® Isolation would have been an ideal solution, as it would have enabled an isolation of the damaged section, kept the line full of product and been the quickest route back to normal production. However; due to a number of challenging variables, such as steep bends and low pressure, TDW was asked to formulate a low-pressure isolation solution in order to isolate the damaged section of the pipeline riser from the export pipeline gas inventory. In doing so, the damaged riser section and associated topside pipework production system could be replaced, safely and efficiently. In September 2009, TDW successfully completed the innovative diver approved, low pressure isolation operation on the export pipeline riser in the Southern North Sea.
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How well do you know your pipeline?
By: Penspen Integrity, UK
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    The importance of looking after pipeline design, construction and as-laid records is sometimes underestimated by operators. Having access to a comprehensive set of pipeline technical data can be invaluable to those responsible for preparing for pigging campaigns and managing pipeline integrity. Good records allow more reliable and often less conservative judgements over issues such as piggability or the response to reported features. Greater certainty results in reduced costs, less disruption to operations, and improved safety.

    An insight into, and some examples of, how design, construction and as-built records can help manage the risks associated with pigging and integrity management, how poor records create difficulties and uncertainties, and how ILI can tell you more about pipeline construction.

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Aberdeen 2008

DEEPWATER, HIGH-PRESSURE AND MULTIDIAMETER PIPELINES A CHALLENGING IN-LINE INSPECTION PROJECT
By: Dr. Hubert Lindner, ROSEN Technology & Research Center, Lingen, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    In-line corrosion inspections with Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) or ultrasonic technology (UT) have become standard in pipeline integrity assessment worldwide. Lately, ultra-high resolution geometry inspection based on eddy current methods (EC) has been established to assess more accurately the internal geometry of pipelines.

    Approximately 60% of the world’s gas, oil and product pipelines can be inspected with off-the-shelf inspection tools. In the past the remaining 40 % of pipelines have often been classified as ‘unpiggable’. A large proportion of these unpiggable pipelines are offshore, multi-diameter lines, with low flow conditions and often with very challenging OD ratios.

    Today, it is possible to develop individualized inspection solutions for multi-diameter pipeline systems. The development of such solutions can already be incorporated into the FEED process for these offshore structures. On the other hand, a great number of pipelines were constructed and laid in times when in-line inspection (ILI) was not available or not a requirement. Occasionally the passage of these offshore pipelines is restricted.

    This paper presents the development of a series of 14"/18" ILI tools and their successful application survey in a 95 km long, high-pressure, heavy-wall, low-flow off-shore pipeline. In a team-effort between the pipeline operator (“Operator”) and the inspection company (ROSEN) a solution was developed for a challenging pipeline, which would have been considered ‘unpiggable’ in the recent past.

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EFFICIENT WAYS OF INCREASING IN-LINE INSPECTION RELIABILITY
By: Vladimir Loskutov, Spetsneftegaz NPO JSC, Russia
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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INSPECTION OF NON PIGGABLE PIPELINES
By: Peter van Beugen, Pipesurvey International CV, Zwijndrecht, The Netherlands
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    Around 40-50% of all oil and gas pipelines around the world are non-piggable for one reason or another. There is growing tendency in the market to look into the integrity of these pipelines.

    Pipesurvey International has developed a tool that can cover at least a bulk part of these pipelines. The XHR MFL tool incorporates all features of any up-to-date MFL ILI tool. The surplus value of the tool is that it is of complete bidirectional design, multidimensional and it has short bend-radius capability. The tool can be launched into a single-entry pipeline, be retrieved back at the same point and in the mean time inspect any length of pipeline. The tool is autonomous but can be operated with an umbilical as well. It is possible to combine the tool with a self propelling pipe robot, which takes the inspection range even one step further.

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INSPECTION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPELINES OFFSHORE WATER INJECTION LINE & OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION LINES
By: L.J. Gruitroij, A Hak Industrial Services BV, Geldermalsen, The Netherlands
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    Pipelines have been laid worldwide for some 100-year’s, and more often than not, once operational, are left without any planned maintenance and the internal condition of these pipelines remains unknown. The normal management approach has been to prioritise on a failure consequence basis, selecting maintenance and inspection options on a failure mode and effect analysis.

    Intelligent pig inspection systems are important tools to manage the integrity of the pipelines. An intelligent pig survey enables the operator responsible for the integrity of the pipeline, to assess the failure risk due to metal loss corrosion using the findings of the inspection survey. However, not all pipelines can be inspected using intelligent pig technology, due to the pipelines origin. In addition the inspection results are not directly available during the inspection process and therefore important decisions can not be made until the inspection report has been issued in a later stage.

    This paper discusses specific applications for offshore pipelines.

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MULTI-DIAMETER PIGGING – FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN AND SELECTION OF PIGGING TOOLS FOR MULTI-DIAMETER PIPELINES
By: Karl Dawson, Pipeline Engineering, Catterick Bridge, Richmond, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    Multi-Diameter Pigging – This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation.

    The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes.

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PIPELINE INTEGRITY SOFTWARE
By: Valery V. Kotov, Weatherford P&SS, Lukhovitsy, Russia
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    It is now commonly accepted that In-Line Inspection is one of the most reliable methods of ensuring pipeline safety. The technologies employed to achieve this aim are being developed all the time and more advanced inspection tools continue to emerge. All efforts are made to detect, by means of in-line inspection, as many defects as possible that pose actual and potential threat to future pipeline integrity. At the same time, a normative framework is being established that includes various standards and recommended practices for assessment of pipeline condition. As a rule, these standards are based on the results of pipeline defect research and large numbers of full-scale tests. Today, the most widespread standards are API 579, BS 7910, DNV RP-F101, API 1156 etc. All of them can be used to forecast the safe operation of pipelines.

    The proper use of many of these methods can substantially reduce the costs of repair and maintenance programmes. Weatherford’s long experience suggests that most pipeline operators have their own well-grounded preferences for selecting methods to rehabilitate pipelines based on Fitness-For-Purpose assessments. As a rule, analysis of the current condition of pipelines requires that additional factors such as defect growth rate, interaction of adjacent defects, as well as pipeline operators’ specific requirements are taken into account almost all the time. The efficiency of defect assessment methods significantly increases when the results of two or more inspections are used. It has become desirable that the pipeline integrity assessment, which is a multi-stage process, would benefit from automation.

    This paper describes Weatherford’s i-View℠ ILI software, which is the result of long experience of dealing with different pipeline operators.

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PORTABLE TEMPORARY PIG LAUNCHER
By: Tom Cornthwaite, Inpipe Products Ltd., Catterick Garrison, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    Given that until recently pipeline pigging has often only been an afterthought of those designing pipelines there are many occasions when pig launching can be difficult. Initially pig launchers might not be placed in ideal locations along the pipeline and there are often cases where space is limited and conditions are not conducive to the fitting of a standard launcher.

    Retrofitting pig launching equipment can also be extremely costly, particularly if the number of launches required are relatively few. There are also many cases where temporary launchers are required, yet these have even fewer available standards to work to.

    International Pipeline Products Ltd of Catterick Garrison, UK have developed a solution that allows straightforward, temporary and cost effective pig launching and receiving for low pressure functions. Adding to the cost effectiveness of the product is the fact that the mechanism relies not on a pipe I/D but a pipe O/D, which, considering how it is usually the O/D that is constant in the pipeline to ensure standardised clamps and stands vastly increases the range of applications for each individual product across a pipeline.

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RBI – A TRANSPARENT PROCESS?
By: C. Frolish, MACAW Engineering Limited, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Co-Authors: I. Diggory, K. McGowan, R. Elsdon, MACAW Engineering Limited Richard Jones, Talisman Energy (UK) Limited
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    The use of Risk Based Inspection (RBI) is widespread in the oil and gas industry. Whilst the underlying methodologies of many of these schemes are similar there is considerable variation in how they are translated into actual working schemes. This paper focuses on the practical issues of creating, implementing and operating an RBI scheme which not only optimises inspection intervals across the assets of a major North Sea Operator but is sufficiently transparent to demonstrate that it can be readily audited both internally and by external bodies.
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SECURING THE BEST PERFORMANCE ENTITLEMENT FROM MFL TECHNOLOGY
By: Ian Mullin, GE Oil & Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    The art of designing Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) tools for the inspection of pipelines has been established over the past 40 years. This paper investigates the science behind the art, and describes the fundamentals of MFL magnetiser design, focusing on the effects that various design options have on magnetic performance. Comparisons are drawn between a magnetiser bar design (hereafter referenced as “magbar”) and solid core bristle design (hereafter referenced as “sweep’s brush”) including variations upon each. The study was carried out through the combined use of Vector Fields 3D & 2D finite element modelling and analysis software.
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TDW SMARTTRACK™ SYSTEM REVOLUTIONIZES PIG TRACKING BY USING TWO-WAY, THROUGH-WALL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE TRANSPONDER AND RECEIVER
By: Gordon Blair, TDW Offshore, Aberdeen, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2008
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    Traditionally pig tracking has been limited to transmission of a signal from a transmitter device located on the pig, generating a signal of fixed frequency which can be detected by a receiving device located on or in close proximity to the pipeline.

    In general these systems are set up prior to the pig run at which point signal frequency is selected relative to the type of tracking required. As a general rule a higher frequency is required to track pigs moving at a high velocity to ensure detection as the pig passes the detection unit. Lower frequency settings are utilized when a pig is to be monitored in a fixed location for a greater period of time. With the exception of radio active sources, battery life for the transmitters is almost directly proportional to the frequency of the signal hence a higher signal rate will reduce battery life.

    The TDW SmartTrack™ system was developed to overcome the limitations of these systems by introducing through wall communication which allows the transmitter signal frequency to be modified externally. The result is greater flexibility during operations, particularly where these operations require extended monitoring over longer periods of time or where the unit can be put into sleep mode then re-awakened when critical operations re-start.

    The units will also uniquely identify each passing pig in multiple pigging operations, log data such as pressure, allowing real time monitoring through the pipe wall.

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Aberdeen 2007

ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PIPELINE BUCKLES
By: Inessa L Yablonskikh, Sarah J Dawson, Raja Venkatanarayanan PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    Geometric anomalies in pipelines are mainly represented by dents, ovalities and buckles. Dents can occur either during pipeline construction or in-service. Buckles and wrinkles may result from cold bending or from loss of stability during offshore pipe-laying. The challenge to the pipeline operator is the identification of those defects that may threaten the future integrity of the pipeline from those defects that are dormant and require no further action.

    Codes and regulations contain limit state criteria to prevent buckles from happening during construction and in service; however, there is practically no acceptance guidance. In cases when buckles and wrinkles are identified, pipeline operators seek expert opinion.

    The current industry thinking and research supports the use of advanced assessment techniques (beyond the depth-based rules). These enhanced assessment techniques make use of the detailed profile of a geometry anomaly. Such information is obtained from high-resolution geometry tools and other supporting information on the presence and severity of stress risers from ILI tools.

    This paper describes how strain-based and stress-based assessment of geometric anomalies can be utilized to assess their significance and need for remediation. Examples are discussed to demonstrate application of the enhanced methods for the assessment of buckles.

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CATHODIC PROTECTION MONITORING VIA IN-LINE INSPECTION
By: P K Scott, Baker Hughes PMG, Houston, USA & M W Mateer, Shell Global Solutions, Houston, USA
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    Identifying problems with and monitoring the effectiveness of a pipeline’s cathodic protection (CP) system can be difficult, expensive and time consuming - especially when the pipe is located in an area of difficult access. If the CP could be monitored via an in-line inspection tool (smart \pig), then the protection status could be confirmed or problems identified regardless of the pipeline location, accessibility, or condition of the ROW.

    An in-line inspection tool capable of reading and recording the magnitude and polarity of current supplied by cathodic protection has been developed and tested in both crude oil and refined product pipelines. The results show that CP currents can be quickly, accurately and efficiently gathered without access to the outside surface of the pipe. For difficult to access areas, CPCM™ Cathodic Protection Current Measurement in-line inspection provides for a reliable, cost effective, time saving way to monitor, validate, or trouble shoot a pipeline’s cathodic protection system.

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DEVELOPMENT OF A PIG BASED INSPECTION TOOL UTILISING MAPS STRESS MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY
By: David Russell and Richard Latimer, Weatherford Pipeline and Specialty Services, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    Measurement of pipeline parameters is of major importance in the detection of defects in pipelines, regardless of the means through which they arise. The negative effects of these defects may lead to reduction of throughput in the line, and, if not detected and remedied, unsafe operation may occur. For this reason there has always been a desire to understand in detail pipeline condition.

    Over the history of pipeline operations, increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used to make measurements. Magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic tools can be used to make measurements of wall loss, and other conditions. Caliper tools have been used to measure dents and other mechanical conditions. More exotic tools have been proposed from time to time. All of these techniques make a big contribution to allowing evidence-based decisions on the maintenance and rehabilitation of pipelines to be made.

    It has been recognised in the industry that direct measurement of stress in pipelines could be a major tool in toolkit used for pipeline condition assessment. In the relatively recent past, the only reliable means to measure stress were either destructive, or non-portable. Advances in the understanding of magnetic properties of metals, and their relation to stress have allowed a number of potential measurement techniques to be proposed. Many of these have been based on the Barkhausen effect, but other concepts, such as non-linear harmonics have also been investigated.

    Weatherford’s Pipeline and Specialty Services group, working with ESR Technology, are in the process of developing a pig capable of measuring the absolute biaxial stress in pipelines, based on ESR's proprietary MAPS measurement system.

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DEVELOPMENTS IN MECHANICAL PRODUCTION CLEANING OF PIPELINES
By: Peter Fretwell, Pipeline Engineering, Richmond, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    PE has over 30 years experience in production cleaning of pipelines. This presentation will focus on the latest developments in pigging philosophy and the importance of tool design for specific production cleaning requirements. The presentation will also cover a number of case histories highlighting production cleaning issues.
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DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS TO INSPECT PLATFORM RISERS
By: R van Agthoven and H Quakkelsteijn, ApplusRTD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    The need for the inspection of pipelines and risers is growing, as the worldwide infrastructure related to pipelines and platforms is ageing. Moreover, regulations today require periodical inspections.

    Today, many pipelines and the connecting risers are piggable and with the intelligent In-line inspection (ILI) tools flaws can be detected to monitor integrity and fitness-for-purpose. Different types of tools are needed to cover all possible flaws, such as metal loss, cracks, geometric anomalies and leaks. Nevertheless, despite all kind of measures, the riser is still a difficult section for inspection as it may have a very thick wall thickness or other obstructions, thereby reducing the effectiveness of such ILI tools, also their speed in risers is difficult to control.

    This presentation focuses on the “unpiggable” risers where free swimming ILI tools cannot be used or are of limited use. Application of internal tethered ultrasonic tools is discussed for inspection of both crude oil and gas risers. Besides that, in the second part of this paper, also non-intrusive methods will be shown as a valid alternative to inspect risers and pipelines from the outside, even without removing marine growth. Today this can be done even at -200 m using ROV’s.

    The presentation shows that each tool has a dedicated field of application. Operational aspects as well as expected results will be discussed, they are of benefit for all operators of platform risers in the oil and gas-industry operated in the North Sea and world-wide.

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GETTING MORE FROM YOUR INTELLIGENT PIG REPORT ASSESSING CLUSTERS
By: Roland Palmer-Jones, Andre Goncalves, Prof. Phil Hopkins, Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    Intelligent pigs are used extensively for inspecting pipelines, due to their proven benefits, expanding capabilities, and legislative requirements.

    Previous papers have discussed how to manage an inspection project, and have given guidance on understanding the inspection report. In this paper we will look in more detail at the assessment of corrosion defects reported in a pipeline by an intelligent pig inspection, and, in particular, large defects or groups of defects.

    At this point it is important to draw a distinction between:

      i) the analysis of inspection data to identify defects, and
      ii) the assessment of the defects and their implications for the integrity of the pipeline.

    These are two separate tasks: the first is carried out by someone who is familiar with the inspection technology and understands what the recorded data (voltage levels for coil sensor MFL tools, or time delays for ultrasonic tools) indicates in terms of pipe wall metal loss or other possible features; the second requires an understanding of how pipeline defects are caused, and how they behave when subject to internal pressure or other loads.

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HIGH-QUALITY GEOMETRY MODULE DATA FOR PIPELINE STRAIN ANALYSES
By: Hendrik Aue and Steffen Paeper, ROSEN, Lingen, Germany, Bryce Brown, ROSEN, Houston, USA Megan K. Humphreys, ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, USA James D. Sutherland Consultant to ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, USA
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    The as-laid position of pipelines is not always constant, since movement can occur for several reasons. Earthquakes, permafrost thaw or heave, landslides, ship anchors and other third-party influences can move and bend pipelines. Any movement of the pipeline position can lead to regional strain which can in turn impact pipeline integrity.

    Pipeline bending can have regional or local character. Both defect classes can be detected and analyzed with specific in-line inspection modules. The latest geometry sensors developed by ROSEN can be combined with proven inertial navigation systems. This combination improves sensitivity, repeatability and confidence when detecting pipeline bending strain while also taking into account the influence of strain around ID anomalies.

    Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies not only makes it possible to meet specific operator needs but also provides a more complete picture of the overall situation.

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A NEW PIPELINE CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: HYDRAULICALLY ACTIVATED POWER PIGGING (HAPP™)
By: Björn Stoltze, HAPP Technology Ltd
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    The need to overcome certain disadvantages of current pigging methods led to the development of the patented Hydraulically Activated Power Pig (HAPP™) technology.

    A HAPP consists of a brake unit, a seal unit and a cleaning head. The brake unit ensures that a pressure difference develops over the seal unit and the fluid transported in the pipeline is transformed into high-pressure jets cleaning the pipeline inner wall.

    This highly efficient technology has great potential to be employed for numerous non-standard pigging jobs. As a consequence it enables pipeline operators to save capex and opex today required for complicated pigging programs.

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PIPELINE INSPECTION UTILIZING ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY: ON THE ISSUE OF RESOLUTION
By: M. Beller, NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2007
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    Today, in-line inspection tools are used routinely to assess the integrity and fitness-for-purpose of high pressure pipelines. Ultrasound technology provides the means to obtain quantitative, highly accurate and reliable inspection data for pipelines.

    In addition, advancements in electronic design have led to marked enhancements regarding axial and depth resolution. Combined with higher speed capabilities than previous generations of ultrasound tools, this has significantly extended the range of application, offering quantitative and high accuracy data for defect geometries not previously covered.

    This paper will focus on and discuss the issue of resolution.

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Aberdeen 2006

Applying Ultrasound for In-Line Inspection: Facts and Issues
By: Dr. Michael Beller, NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    Today the use of in-line inspection tools is a standard procedure for the collection of pipeline data required for integrity assessment and fitness-for-purpose studies. Their major task is to provide accurate geometric information regarding the length, width, depth, orientation and location of a flaw. The major advantage of in-line inspection tools is their capability to survey the entire pipe circumference whilst the pipeline remains in operation.
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Automatic Multiple Pig Launching Systems
By: David Bacon and James Carter, Pipeline Engineering, Catterick Bridge, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    This paper describes the background to Multiple Pig Launching Systems, how they work, their applications & their advantages/disadvantages. It also covers Pipeline Engineering's new and innovative system involving specially developed technology (patent applied for Application No. 0603369.0), to allow the individual launching of preloaded pigs from the majority of standard launching traps with no launcher modifications.
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Cost and Time Effective Repairs of Faulty Pipeline Valves and Fittings
By: Mark Sim, TDW Offshore Services A/S, Stavanger, Norway
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    The continuous development of the remote controlled high-pressure pipeline isolation technology has resolved a range of operational problems caused by faulty pipeline valves and fittings. Recent applications includes change of a faulty insulation joint on a 42" pipeline in Georgia, rerouting of the Frigg and Heimdal to St. Fergus pipelines during Frigg Decommissioning, repair of a faulty subsea clamp on a 26 inch pipeline in GOM, all on live pressurized gas pipelines. The piggable high-pressure isolation train can include a pressure test barrier allowing leak test or pressure test upon completed repair work. Other recent applications includes protection of pressurized pipelines during heavy lift operations.

    This paper describes a range of application focusing on the time and cost saving achieved by the operator whilst minimizing environmental impact.

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A New Cleaning Approach for Black Powder Removal
By: Dr Hubert Lindner, ROSEN Technology & Research Center, Lingen (Ems), Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    The occurrence of black powder is causing increasing concern in the natural gas industry worldwide. Although it is a relatively new phenomenon, a growing number of pipeline operators are now turning their attention to the problem, because of the substantial effects it has on their pipeline systems. In combination, these effects and the wide range of other difficulties are creating a major challenge for pipeline operators, notably for pigging activities (cleaning and inspection).
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On-Line Monitoring of Absolute Stress Values in Pipelines
By: David Russell, Weatherford Pipeline & Specialty Services, Musselburgh, UK David Buttle, ESR Technology Ltd, John McCarthy, ESR Technology Ltd
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    A wide variety of means are in use to detect, characterize and measure an equally wide range of defects in pipelines. These may arise from pre-existing conditions, errors in construction, effects of corrosion, accidental damage or other causes. Caliper tools, mapping tools, MFL, EMAT and ultrasonic tools are all used to detect conditions that may result in unacceptable stress in a pipeline. The ultimate aim, for all of these detection techniques, is to prove that the inspected pipeline's fitness for purpose is maintained; and where this is not demonstrated, to provide accurate and reliable information on which to base a rehabilitation program.

    In recently years, a number of companies have investigated techniques intended to utilize the dependence of the magnetic response of ferrous materials to applied stress in order to make direct measurements of stress. Most of these techniques have been based on the Barkhausen effect, but measurements based on other phenomena such as non-linear harmonics have also been looked at. This paper discusses the use of an alternative technique based on other magnetic properties that have been shown to allow derivation of a quantifiable relation between the level of stress present in material and the magnetic response. This technique, named MAPS by its developers, ESR Technology, has been employed with considerable success out-with the pipeline industry.

    Weatherford Pipeline and Speciality Services are presently working with ESR Technology in order to develop a pig-based inspection tool utilising this measurement technology. The initial aim is to provide a tool capable of diagnosing pipeline problems due to ground movement, spanning and other cause of bulk changes in stress. Refinement of the technique may make it possible to detect local increases in stress due to the presence of dents, metal loss defects etc.

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Pigging of Pipelines with High Wax Content
By: Alf Tordal, Statoil ASA, Stavanger, Norway
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    The main purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for a best practice regarding pigging of pipelines with high wax content.
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Pipeline Integrity Management Strategy for Aging Offshore Pipelines
By: C Clausard, MACAW Engineering Limited, Wallsend, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    In the North Sea many assets have been in operation for up to 20 years and with original design lives of 25-30 years they are nearing the end of their lives. With the shortage of fuel and the improved techniques of extracting these valuable energy supplies the ability to ensure the integrity of aging assets and extending their safe remaining life has become critical.

    Having as much knowledge as possible about assets and their pipelines and knowing how to analyse this information has become very important. In offshore pipelines intelligent pigging provides the clearest picture of the integrity of the pipeline. The information from these inspections can then be fed into the many assessment tools available in the market, for example:

    • Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessments - Identifies the threats and their initiators affecting the integrity of the pipeline
    • Corrosion Risk Assessments - Analyses the specific risk of internal and external corrosion to the pipeline
    • FFP (Fitness for Purpose) - Conducts an assessment of the pipeline and its corrosion features according to various standards (B31.G, DNV etc,) to determine immediate repairs.
    • Corrosion Growth Assessment - using the inputs from the above assessment tools this determines an accurate corrosion growth rate for calculating any future repairs and a re-inspection interval
    In general these tools tend to be used individually but put together they could provide a complete picture of the current integrity of the pipeline by assessing all areas of risk. This paper assesses the advantage of combining all of the above, in particular the inclusion of semi-quantitative risk assessments, to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the pipeline. The ultimate aim is to produce an effective integrity management plan to ensure the safe and long operating future of the pipeline.
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Understanding The Results of An Intelligent Pig Inspection
By: Roland Palmer-Jones, Penspen Integrity, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2006
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    Intelligent pigs are used extensively for inspecting pipelines. Their use has been increasing rapidly due to their proven benefits, expanding capabilities, and legislative requirements.

    The result of an intelligent pig inspection is an inspection report with a list of defects. To gain the full benefit from an inspection the pipeline operator must understand the inspection process, and what the list of defects means for the immediate and the future integrity of the pipeline.

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Aberdeen 2005

ILI Tool Validation - Feature Assessment And Mapping
By: A. J. Patrick; Clock Spring Company L.P.
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    In-Line-Inspection reports are now forming the foundation of Integrity Management Plans. Reliance on these reports demands that tool data be verified and validated. This validation requirement, while technically prudent, will also be a recommended practice in new procedures being developed.

    Tool validation is a difficult task requiring detailed field measurements of features in a format that can be compared directly to the ILI data. This paper presents an overview of the validation process and describes the development and testing of a new device for measuring, documenting and assessing external corrosion on steel pipelines.

    Feasibility and design of the new system were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

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Managing ILI Projects To Get The Results You Need
By: Roland Palmer Jones and Dr. Phil Hopkins; Penspen Integrity, Richmond-Upon-Thames, UK
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    There are 3.5 million km of transmission pipelines around the world. This system has been providing safe reliable transport for hydrocarbons for 100 years. A large proportion of that pipeline system has reached, or will soon reach, the end of its design life. Many of the pipelines operate in harsh environments, transport corrosive products, and as a result have suffered extensive corrosion damage. Oil and gas reserves are predicted to last for another 40 to 60 years. Consequently, much of the worlds existing pipeline infrastructure will be required to continue operating for many years to come. Inspection and rehabilitation are therefore critical for ensuring continued, safe reliable operation.

    A great deal of work has been done on extending pipeline life by developing inspection technologies such as intelligent pigs, methods for recoating pipelines, techniques for internal painting, and hydrotesting regimes that will detect critical cracks. This wide range of options, the potential for problems such as a stuck pig, the costs associated, and the potential consequences of a failure, mean that a pipeline operator has to proceed very carefully when planning any inspection programme.

    This paper will consider pipeline inspection based on the authors experiences from recent projects and recommend a simple strategy to ensure that a sensible, justifiable, plan is developed.

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Metal Loss And Crack Inspection: Benefits Of Using Ultrasound Technology
By: K. Reber and M. Beller; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    With pipelines growing older, more and more inspection data of different origin are gathered. Most of the data is acquired by In-Line inspection tools as they can cover the whole length of a pipeline in one inspection job. The comparison of the results of in-line inspections becomes more and more important. Not only should the previous results be verified, but the continuous monitoring of the pipeline's condition allows to derive new conclusions like the assessment of corrosion growth. The paper will discuss how defect growth can be estimated from continuous inspections and what implications the advancement in inspection technology has. Several models of corrosion growth assessment are discussed. Their applicability depends on the condition of the pipeline, i.e. the density of defects and the available data. A stepwise process can be defined in which more detailed information will allow to use more accurate methods of corrosion growth assessment.

    In a final stage the data of high-resolution ultrasonic inspection tools can be used to compare defects on a basis of wall thickness C-Scans. This will generate more precise conclusions about corrosion growth on single defects, which was not possible on the traditional statistical approach.

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Multi-Diameter And Quantitative Inspection Technologies For Offshore Pipelines
By: M. Beller; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany, T. Jung; PIT AG, Stutensee, Germany, & K. Reber; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2005
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    Offshore pipelines often constitute a real challenge regarding their inspection. Accurate and reliable results are required in order to assess the state and integrity of a line and decide on optimized maintenance procedures in order to safeguard the operation of the pipeline and protect the asset.

    Major parameters to consider are wall thickness, length, requirements regarding resolution and accuracy and more and more the ability of the inspection tool to negotiate diameter variations.

    This paper will provide an overview of available technologies and in-line inspection tools for the inspection of dual- and multi-diameter offshore pipelines. The paper will cover in-line inspection tools based on ultrasound-, magnetic flux leakage- and laser-based technologies covering geometry-, metal loss- as well as crack detection.

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New Technologies Of "Spetsneftegaz" Magnetic In-Line Inspection
By: Dr.V.A. Kanaykin, Dr.B.V.Patramanskiy, Dr.V.E.Loskutov; "Spetsneftegaz" NPO" JSC, Russia
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    For the period from 1991 to 1995, "Spetsneftegaz" scientists have developed original, the first in Russia, magnetic in-line inspection technology and created high resolution magnetic ILI tools. Since 1995, "Spetsneftegaz" has been continuously performing in-line inspections of "Gazprom" trunk gas pipelines, using its own equipment and technologies, constantly upgrading quality of work. Since that time, more than 100,000 km trunk gas pipelines of various diameters have been inspected worldwide, using high resolution MFL & TFI technology.
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Pigging As A Flow Assurance Solution - Avoiding Slug Catcher Overflow
By: Aidan O'Donoghue; Pipeline Research Limited, Glasgow, UK
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    This paper sets out to provide an initial method of assessing the bypass requirements for pigging of a two-phase gas/liquid pipeline. The use of bypass or high bypass pigging is an established concept that has been discussed many times before. The aim here is to provide an initial indication of where they can work. Given a limited volume at the slug catcher and pump out rate (resulting from economics or other practical considerations), it is possible that a pig will remove too much liquid from the pipeline leading to overload of the slug catcher and subsequently tripping the pipeline. With liquid level control on the slug catcher and slug suppression, the receiving terminal will see a period of no gas. This may be undesirable from a process point of view. Liquid volumes arriving at the slug catcher or separator may be reduced by using an inefficient pig (unpredictable) or by slowing down the pig and aerating the liquid slug using bypass. This paper provides a first pass design method for such pigs, examines the background for their use and provides a case study or example to demonstrate the application.
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Pigging In Pipeline Pre-Commissioning
By: David Russell; Weatherford Pipeline & Specialty Services UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2005
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    After a pipeline is constructed and before it is put into service there are a number of key activities required in order to ensure that the pipe meets the requirements of its owners or operators. These will vary to some extent depending on the service for which the line is intended, but as a minimum they will be looking for verification that the line has been laid without significant defects and is in a condition suitable to be filled with the intended product.

    Pipeline pigging has a significant role to play in meeting these conditions, and pigs are met with in a number of guises during pre-commissioning operations. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the uses of pigs in these operations, and provide some basic information on train design and pig selection. Some examples are drawn from a range of types of construction and pre-commissioning projects in order to give a feel for the practicalities of the operations described.

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Pipeline Integrity Analysis Based On Interdisciplinary Cooperation
By: Perry Barham; BP Pipelines, North America, Bryce Brown; ROSEN, USA, Thomas Beuker; RTRC, Germany Martin Fingerhut; RTD Quality Services, USA
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2005
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    For many years, BP Pipelines, North America has used high-resolution Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) technology to help maintain the integrity of their pipelines. The improvements in this technology that now allow an Operator to make integrity decisions also bring challenges. Reports from ILI can list thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of individual anomalies or features. When combined with data from NDT field measurements and existing pipe tallies, it can become overwhelming. Methods had to be developed to distill this information for further analysis.

    BP Pipelines NA encouraged cooperation between all parties involved in the integrity process to adapt reporting requirements and work procedures to provide the best available information for integrity analysis and to ensure continued improvements. This cooperation is a key part of the integrity equation and essential to a successful program.

    This paper presents an overview of the validation process undertaken on a 51 km (32-mile) section of 457 mm (18-inch) pipeline. This pipe section was inspected in 1999 and again in 2003 by the same inspection company. This provided an opportunity to evaluate improvements in inspection technology, assess repeatability of performance and develop an engineering based approach to review, analyze, and validate high-resolution metal loss MFL data. Field verification and data validation included the use of several NDE techniques to acquire field measurements to overlay and compare to the ILI inspection data.

    Anomaly classification and distribution is examined and methods of selecting validation locations for future inspection developed. In addition to the primary goal outlined, the 2003 repair program provided an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the composite sleeve reinforcements applied in 1999, after 4 years of service.

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Aberdeen 2004

Addressing The Problems of Ageing Pipelines Using The Most Recent Ultrasonic In-Line Inspection Tools
By: Dr. K. Reber & Dr. M. Beller; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    With pipelines growing older, more and more inspection data of different origin are gathered. Most of the data is acquired by In-Line inspection tools as they can cover the whole length of a pipeline in one inspection job. The comparison of the results of in-line inspections becomes more and more important. Not only should the previous results be verified, but the continuous monitoring of the pipeline's condition allows to derive new conclusions like the assessment of corrosion growth. The paper will discuss how defect growth can be estimated from continuous inspections and what implications the advancement in inspection technology has. Several models of corrosion growth assessment are discussed. Their applicability depends on the condition of the pipeline, i.e. the density of defects and the available data. A stepwise process can be defined in which more detailed information will allow to use more accurate methods of corrosion growth assessment.

    In a final stage the data of high-resolution ultrasonic inspection tools can be used to compare defects on a basis of wall thickness C-Scans. This will generate more precise conclusions about corrosion growth on single defects, which was not possible on the traditional statistical approach.

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Composites - Case Studies of Pipeline Repair Applications
By: Andrew J. Patrick; Clock Spring Company, L.P., Huntingdon, UK
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    Composite repairs have been utilised within the transmission pipeline industry for over the past 20 years for the permanent repair and reinforcement of sections of the pipe wall which have been weakened due to corrosion.

    Most internationally recognised repair codes such as ASME B31.4 and B31.8 accept the use of composites for this repair function.

    Most oil and gas pipeline operators are familiar with composites and the health, safety, technical and commercial benefits they provide.

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce new areas of repair applications where composites can be used and to provide case studies for these particular repair functions.

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Emerging Issues of the Next 10-20 Years
By: Nathan Stephenson; Shell UK Limited
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    The assurance of pipeline integrity has always been important. However, the industry and society expectations have combined to place ever increasing demand on operators, with respect to HS&E, financial and reputation issues. Against this background and with an ageing North Sea pipeline infrastructure it is necessary that we address all the key aspects of pipeline integrity management, such as; correct operation, corrosion management, flow assurance and inspection. The programme for this session reflects all of these key areas.

    This paper will focus on some emerging issues relating to pipeline pigging operations in three specific areas; pigging pipelines under low flow conditions, pigging pipelines to control/mitigate MIC corrosion and new technology opportunities.

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Geriatric Pipelines - One Foot in the Grave
By: Blair McKay; BP
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    Pipelines are like ourselves - they wear and age, and have some of the same symptoms in that:

    • They have a finite life - design versus achievable. Keep in good order and it will outlive the design (just as we need exercise and fitness)
    • They need additional treatment as they get older - Biocide, corrosion inhibition, wax reducing agents (just as we need pills)
    • Valves and control systems may not function to the standard required (just as our joints may need replacement)
    • Closer operational control and monitoring is required to ensure no leaks or faults (just as we need more regular checks as we grow older)
    • There is no substitute for actual inspection - intelligent pigging, subsea ROV camera etc (just as the doctor will diagnose us)
    • How good is the documentation - it is essential that documentation for the pipeline is kept up-to-date including as built drawings, amendments etc (just as our medical history can assist the doctor)
    • Changes in legislation affect:
      • How you manage the pipelines - PSRs, MAPDs Operator etc
      • Legislative authorities and who you communicate to - HSE Pipelines Inspectorate, DTI (just as pension changes may effect us)
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In-Line Inspection Of New Pipelines
By: Dr Konrad Reber and Dr Michael Beller; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    In-Line Inspection (ILI) of pipelines is usually only of interest to operators of older pipelines with known integrity problems. In the recent years it has become more and more common to also inspect new pipelines right before they are commissioned for service. This is not so much done for the purpose of detecting corrosion. Corrosion and other operating related flaws are not anticipated in newly laid pipelines. However, the non-destructive testing that usually takes place after several years of operation will be an in-line inspection. It has turned out to be very valuable to have a similar survey carried out at the very beginning, so later inspections can always refer to initial results. It can easily be found out, whether changes have taken place or not. In addition the In-Line inspection can also be a quality control of the manufacturing process. Although the pipeline and its parts are thoroughly tested throughout the manufacturing process, the ILI is a measurement different from previous inspections and shows the final result. The benefits of a baseline survey will be discussed with special regard to ultrasonic inspection (UT). It is explained why UT inspection is especially suitable for this purpose.
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Midline Tie-Ins & Repairs On Live Oil & Gas Pipelines Utilising Remotely Operated Intelligent Piggable Isolation Tools
By: Jostein Aleksandersen & Edd Tveit; Plugging Specialists International ASA, Stavanger, Norway
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    The development in intelligent plugging and pigging tools has evolved from the outdated umbilical operated tools that were operated through penetrations in pig trap doors.

    The new intelligent plugging and pigging tools allow remote local pressure isolations at any water depth and at any position along a pipeline. The remote through-wall communication system reduces the number of vessels required during the flooding and commissioning of pipelines since pigs can communicate wirelessly their arrival and departure through the pipewall, through water and through air.

    This paper presents the remote controlled pipeline isolation and pigging tools and describes the function and operation of each main sub-system. The paper presents historical applications with focus on subsea and midline pipeline isolations and interventions.

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A New Approach To Buckling Detection In Offshore Pipeline Laying
By: Marian Copilet; Durham Pipeline Technology Ltd., Gateshead, UK & Prof. Ernie Appleton; University of Durham
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    This paper discusses a novel concept of detecting local buckling in new offshore pipelines.

    The method employs two tethered crawlers, one located close to the lay barge end and the other beyond the point where buckling is expected to occur. The tractors can "walk" in synch along the pipe. As both tractors are self-propelled, this proposed new method will remove the need to have a cable in tension. By fitting the second tractor with a camera and an array of sensors, video images and geometrical measurements of the newly laid pipe can be obtained in real time.

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On-Line Flow Assurance Surveys To Determine Pipeline Deposit Location And Inventory
By: Lee Robins; Tracerco, Billingham, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    Tracerco have, over the past forty years, offered the Tracerco Diagnostics™ technology to look at the performance of oil and gas process systems. The measurement services offered involve the use of radioactive sealed sources and unsealed radioisotope tracers to provide a rapid and detailed picture of systems performance whilst remaining on-line. These techniques are carried out on-line, external to the pipeline, with no interference to normal pipeline operations, and effectively allow us to ‘look' through vessel and pipe walls to measure contents and process parameters.

    This paper focuses on selected areas of the TRACERCO Diagnostics™ technologies that are used for pipeline deposit measurements, specifically their location, amount, and profile within any length of pipeline.

    This paper will show how the techniques are employed, the type of results that are achievable, and describe selected case studies.

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Pipeline Flooding, Dewatering And Venting
By: Dr Aidan O'Donoghue, Pipeline Research Limited, Glasgow, Scotland
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    Flooding, cleaning, gauging, dewatering and venting of offshore oil and gas pipelines during pre-commissioning involves pipeline pigging and expensive deployment vessel time. To aid in the planning of such operations, a number of analyses can be undertaken to determine the duration to perform each of these tasks. The mathematical models can also optimise the equipment required (hoses, pumps, compressors). Problems that could be encountered without a clear knowledge of how the operation will proceed can be avoided. The operation can be monitored by comparing recorded and predicted values, for example inlet pressure. This paper provides an overview of work performed to establish pig velocity, inlet pressure and pigging duration during various pre-commissioning tasks.
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Realise The Value Of Pipeline Data Management Across The Enterprise By Exploiting Legacy Databases
By: Stuart Clouston, Jay Smith & D Book; PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington, UK
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    Within most pipeline organisations, maintenance and facility departments use a range of separate data sources and applications to manage the integrity, maintenance and safety of their pipelines. These databases represent a significant investment over many years and are an integral part of day-to-day operations.

    It is evident that integration of data into a single, coherent data management system can provide significant benefits. However, the cost of implementing entirely new systems - with intensive data capture programs - is difficult to justify given the earlier investments. As a result dedicated risk management software using static and separately maintained data is often used as a quick, low cost alternative to meet regulatory compliance commitments.

    Experience has shown that, with the right technology and an understanding of the specific needs of an organisation, a phased approach to integrated data management can be achieved at minimum initial cost by exploiting legacy data. This provides a low cost yet scalable solution that can grow with the changing needs of the business.

    In addition to the benefits of legacy data integration, we will also look into the benefits of technologies for distributed data access to provide simple, process-focussed reporting tools.

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Smart Utility Pig Technology In Pipeline Operations
By: Barry Nicholson, Weatherford Pipeline & Specialty Services, Edinburgh, UK
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    Pipeline operators have a requirement to inspect an oil or gas pipeline in order to assess its integrity. Of particular interest are the internal condition of the pipeline with respect to corrosion or debris, and the geometric shape of the pipeline.

    SAAM® Smart Utility Pig technology has been deployed in these respects over the past 7 years in over 7,000km of pipeline. Over this time, the technology and analysis techniques have been developed, taking into account the experiences gained from previous surveys. This has led to recent improvements in the technology and increased confidence in the analysis results.

    This paper describes the various capabilities of the smart utility pigging technology, giving examples from recent pipeline inspection surveys. These applications include: providing a vertical and horizontal pipeline profile, and using the results to monitor for movement or to assess pipeline strain; identifying mechanical damage, including bore restrictions, dents, illegal taps or offset couplings; providing an assessment of pipeline debris, estimating the remaining internal bore and determining the effectiveness of the pipeline cleaning program; and providing an assessment of internal corrosion.

    The paper concludes with a brief description of special projects where the technology has been integrated with external sensors to provide additional information during a pig run, and a discussion of possible future improvements in the technology and data analysis.

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Unpiggable Pipelines - What a Challenge For In-Line Inspection!
By: Dr. Rainer Schmidt, 3P Services, Lingen, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2004
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    Today, in-line inspection is well on its way to be standard in the maintenance of pipelines - as far as piggable pipelines are concerned. However, next to piggable pipelines there is a large number of un-piggable pipelines which are equally important for the operators, that are equally aging and that equally need inspection.
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Using Benchmarking To Optimise The Cost Of Pipeline Integrity Management
By: John Healy, David G Jones, Alasdair J Clyne, Pablo B Cazenave, Duraid Alkazraji. GE Energy, Oil & Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions
Presented at: PPSA London Seminar 2004
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    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to Benchmark the effectiveness of pipeline Integrity Management plans in preventing leaks and ruptures.

    The methodology involves assessing and weighting the effectiveness of nine key integrity activities:

    • Integrity plan
    • Risk Assessment
    • Defect assessment
    • Repair method
    • Spill detection
    • Corrosion prevention
    • In-line inspection
    • Third party damage prevention
    • Failure history
    An operator's overall performance is benchmarked against similar operators and industry best practice. Improvement opportunities are identified and prioritised to improve the benchmarking position.

    Attention is also given to the cost of the Integrity Management activities. The benchmarking methodology identifies cost optimisation opportunities whilst maintaining acceptable safety levels.

    The methodology has successfully been utilised to benchmark 140,000 km of pipelines worldwide and details are provided.

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Aberdeen 2003

Cleaning Of Oil & Gas Pipelines
By: Theo Verleun; N-SPEC® an activity of Brenntag
Presented at: PPSA Seminar Aberdeen 2003
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    The outcome of the last Pipeline and Pigging Conference in Houston, February 2003, could be summarized in one major topic "Pipeline Integrity Management", also in Europe this issue will be most important, especially regarding all the legislation and governmental regulations which are applicable or will be applicable in a short period of time. Pipeline owners and operators have to be aware of the integrity of their lines, because in case of a failure they have to prove that their line was "fit for purpose"!

    Knowing this, in-line inspection of the pipeline has to be applied, and before such inspection is executed, the line has to be clean. During the above mentioned Conference there was concluded "The cleaner, the better"!

    So, the deviated topic for this presentation is "The cleaner, the better" and the central question during the whole presentation is "do pipelines need cleaning?" After the presentation, all of you could answer this question and I already know what it will be.

    Total Cleaning >> the right conditions for in-line inspection
    In-line Inspection >> correct readings and data collecting
    Pipeline Integrity >> Interpretation of the data, resulting in acceptable or not
    Safeguarded Production >> Operator/owner can anticipate on the future in time!

    Every day there is a considerable amount of time and money spent on making mechanical pigging runs in pipelines, typically they are run for more than one reason:

    • Cleaning the internal pipe wall surface;
    • Removing free solids and debris;
    • Gathering data about the integrity;
    • Applying some sort of chemistry to the inside surface of the pipeline.

    By adding special fluids to this process, the effectiveness of these runs can be enhanced:

    • improving flow conditions;
    • reducing differential pressures;
    • removing more solids per run (more solids than 50 pig runs would achieve);
    • reducing the risk of pigs getting stuck;
    • optimizing chemical inhibition programs.

    This paper will discuss the typical pipeline pig's design, this includes the different shapes of the components and materials used relate to the performance of the pig as it makes its journey through the line. Various limitations of pigs will be outlined due to their physical design versus the geometric shape of the surface to be cleaned. The limitations of commonly used solvents will be discussed along with what is required to make cleaning fluids more efficient.

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A Contraflow Tetherless Mechanical Pipeline Crawler
By: Chris Stanley; RST Projects Ltd, a Weatherford Company.
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2003
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    This paper outlines the principal functions of the base carrier tool, its potential accessory modules and a commercial basis for its adoption by operators.
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Magnetic Flux Leakage Pigs or Ultrasonic Pigs?
The Case For Combined Intelligent Pig Inspections
By: Dr Andrew Pople; Penspen Integrity
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2003
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    This paper describes a case study where a pipeline operator was faced with features in the pipe wall that proved difficult to conclusively identify. An ultrasonic (UT) pig inspection indicated that the pipeline contained numerous deep external defects. However, subsequent excavations indicated that the reported external defects were in fact mainly laminations and/or inclusions. To verify that this was the case for the whole pipeline the operator ran both a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and an ultrasonic inspection tool in the same inspection programme, using the magnetic flux leakage tool to confirm the absence of part-wall defects and hence demonstrating the presence of laminations.
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On-Line, Non-Intrusive Diagnostic Techniques For Pipeline Inspection And Flow Assurance
By: Lee Robins; Tracerco
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2003
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    Tracerco have, over the past forty years, offered the Tracerco Diagnostics™ technology to look at the performance of oil and gas process systems. The measurement services offered involve the use of radioactive sealed sources and unsealed radioisotope tracers to provide a rapid and detailed picture of systems performance whilst remaining on-line. These techniques are carried out on-line, external to the pipeline, with no interference to normal pipeline operations, and effectively allow us to ‘look' through vessel and pipe walls to measure contents and process parameters.

    This paper focuses on selected areas of the TRACERCO Diagnostics ™ technology as applied to Pipeline Inspection and Flow Assurance.

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Pigging Multi-Diameter Pipelines - An Engineered Solution
By: Warwick Lockwood; FTL Seals Technology
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2003
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    The centreline multidimensional suspension system (CMSS) was designed and patented by FTL Seals Technology Ltd (FTL) as a direct result of the pipeline pig functional requirements for the Statoil Åsgard pipeline RFO commissioning project in 1998.

    Customer problems were reduced to a set of functional requirements and through attention to detail monitored via an ISO 9001:2001 Quality Management system a solution to the particular problem is reached.

    In the instance of the CMSS it was resolved early on in the design procedure that a new and revolutionary approach had to be adopted if the functional requirements were to be met whilst at the same time upholding the philosophy of FTL.

    The majority of previously designed commissioning pigs adhered to well established design concepts in that all functions of the pig could be met with a relatively simple low cost design. The Åsgard multi diameter gas transporter line however was totally different.

    The pipeline length would be 710 km at 42" diameter and the last 500 metres would reduce to 28" diameter. Drive disc and support disc wear would be a critical consideration.

    By applying basic hydraulic cylinder design principals FTL decided that contrary to previous designs the support function of the pig should be completely separate from the sealing and drive function. Due to the expected high rate of wear that the sealing discs would have to withstand it was decided to take the hitherto unprecedented step for a commissioning pig to mount the whole unit on a self supporting and self centering suspension system.

    By careful design and incorporating variable suspension geometry the potential to overload the wheel assemblies was avoided when passing from the larger to the smaller diameter pipeline sections. Furthermore, a slow controlled rotary motion would be imparted to the whole pig train to even out the wear on the discs.

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Ultrasonic In-Line Inspection Tools To Inspect Older Pipelines For Cracks In Girth And Long-Seam Welds
By: K. Reber, M. Beller; NDT Systems & Services AG, Stutensee, Germany
Presented at: PPSA Seminar Aberdeen 2003
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    The number and variety of different in-line inspections tools has been increasing in the last years and thus it is getting more and more difficult to maintain an overview of what kind of inspection is suitable for what purpose. This paper will especially target the question of crack detection. Before going into details about the ultrasonic inspection method, flaws in girth welds are described. Many flaws are manufacturing related und thus not a special problem of older pipelines. However, when inspecting for flaws typical of aging pipelines a distinction between the two is of utmost interest. The abilities and limitations of the MFL-Technology, as one means of flaw detection in welds, are described. Finally the principle and several examples of ultrasonic detection of flaws at welds are presented.
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Aberdeen 2002

An Introduction to Pipeline Pigging
By: Robert Davidson, Halliburton Pipeline and Process Services
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2002
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    In the world we live in today, pipelines are used to transport all manner of powders and fluids from one point to another. From the food industry to oil and gas transportation, millions of lives are affected by the ability to maintain flow through pipelines that cross over land and under sea to deliver a product. Coupled with the economic drive to maintain product flow, the importance of this task has spawned a whole industry to ensure pipeline integrity.
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Pig Tracking - A Review of Existing Technology
By: Andy McAra, Nautronix Limited
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2002
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    'Pig Tracking' is used as a generic term to cover any requirement to monitor the movement or locate the position of pigs during the pigging operation.

    This generic term can in some cases cause confusion, and the PPSA (Pipeline Pigging and Services Association) has endeavoured to be more correct and specific.

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Pushing The Boundaries Of Dual Diameter Pig Design
By: Dave Bacon, Pipeline Engineering and Supply Company Limited
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2002
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    As the demand for dual diameter pipeline systems grows, the demand to develop a range of dual diameter pigs becomes ever more acute. This paper has been produced to aid the selection process for dual diameter pigs.

    The paper presents current technology and describes the advantages and disadvantages of the various designs of dual diameter pig in the market. It also goes into detail of the function requirements of pigs and the validation process, which should be undertaken, prior to using a pig in a real life pipeline.

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Blockage Location - The Pulse Method
By: James Pitchford and John Pitchford, Pitchford In-Line
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2002
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    Pipeline blockages can result from a number of different mechanisms: wax or solid hydrates can build up over time, pigs can become lodged in the lines, and pigging can also draw solids down the line to accumulate into a plug. Once a pipeline is blocked, production is lost and it becomes a matter of urgency to locate and remove the blockage. In the spring of 2002 an accumulation of hydrate was thought to be blocking a North Sea line and Pitchford In-Line were commissioned to identify the position of the blockage. Using the established theory of reflecting a pressure pulse off the blockage and detecting its return, a Blockage Location tool was developed and used with great success on the line in question. This paper illustrates the technique, making comparisons with work done by the Petrobras Research Center ("Blockage Remediation in Deep Water Pipelines") and Saipem ("Pig Location Techniques").
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Tools, Vendors, Services - A Review Of Current In-Line Inspection Technologies
By: M. Beller, K. Reber, U. Schneider, NDT Systems & Services AG
Presented at: PPSA Aberdeen Seminar 2002
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    The paper provides an overview of the inline inspection tools (ILI tools) commercially available in the market place today.

    After a short summary of flaws and defects found in steel pipelines, the various physical principles utilised by intelligent pigs will be introduced and specific strength and weaknesses will be discussed.

    Geometry, metal loss survey, crack detection and inertia tools will be introduced. Especially ultrasonic in-line inspection tools for wall thickness measurement and crack detection will be covered, regarding technology, vendors and defect specifications.

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